Table 3

Comparison of participant characteristics between reported legal PES use groups (n=946)

CharacteristicReported legal PES use (n=136)No reported legal PES use (n=810)P value
Gender (% male)76(56%)337(42%)0.002
Age15.8± 2.4813.7± 2.96<0.001
Median income0.718
White (n=916)*108(81%)686(88%)0.046
Medical history
 Attention Deficit Disoder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD / ADHD)22(16%)69(9%)0.006
Sport-specialised athlete117(86%)642(79%)0.086
Sport group
 Contact sport105(77%)658(81%)0.27
Cigarette use (n=663)*1(1%)0(0%)0.98
Alcohol use (n=662)*35(29%)61(11%)<0.001
Age started organised sports5(5-6)5(4-6)0.07
Relative is a coach7(5%)106(13%)0.01
Number of seasons with coach0(0–2)0(0–2)0.30
Unrestricted internet access96(71%)388(48%)<0.001
Reason for playing sports0.01
 To have fun57(42%)453(56%)
 Stay fit16(12%)67(8%)
 Make friends3(2%)9(1%)
 Win a championship13(10%)64(8%)
 Be part of a team22(16%)116(14%)
 To be strong4(3%)17(2%)
 To make parents happy0(0%)3(0%)
Use of weight training regimen89(65%)309(38%)<0.001
Belief that athletic ability is influenced by weight97(71%)356(44%)<0.001
History of intentional weight loss46(34%)139(17%)<0.001
History of intentional weight gain49(36%)69(9%)<0.001
Weeknight hours of sleep7.5± 1.078.2± 1.24<0.001
Weekend hours of sleep8.9± 1.49.2± 1.260.02
  • *The number in parentheses represents the number of cases with available data for the given characteristic.

  • PES, performance-enhancing substances.