Golf | Nordic walk | Walk | |||||||||||

Pre-exercise | Postexercise | Change | P value* | Pre-exercise | Postexercise | Change | P value* | Pre-exercise | Postexercise | Change | P value* | P value† | |

BDNF (ng/mL) | 40.61±6.53 | 34.49±6.28 | 6.11±7.35 | 0.391 | 45.11±8.34 | 43.83±9.23 | 2.56±7.56 | 0.968 | 44.11±9.66 | 37.67±5.13 | 2.31±7.29 | 0.523 | 0.745 |

CTSB (ng/mL) | 66.26±6.20 | 69.26±8.22 | 3.0±4.00 | 0.615 | 68.69±8.56 | 71.22±8.56 | 2.55±3.07 | 0.693 | 73.55±8.45 | 77.14±9.99 | 3.59±3.82 | 0.927 | 0.927 |

BDNF golf (n=20 pre and n=20 post), NW (n=20 pre, n=19 post), W (n=18 pre, n=19 post).

CTSB golf (n=22 pre and n=22 post), NW (n=23 pre, n=13 post), W (n=23 pre, n=23 post).

Quantitative variables were expressed as means ±SEM and expressed in mean (95% CI).

*To determine group difference in pre-exercise and post-exercise, data were analysed by Wilcoxon signed rank test.

†To compare the difference in pre-exercise and change value between all groups, data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test.

BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; CTSB, cathepsin B.