Table 1

Characteristics of the participants

MenWomenAllP value*†Cohen’s d‡
Demographic outcomes
 Age (years)68±3.967±2.669±4.40.628−0.066
 Marital status0.088
  Married15 (94%)5 (56%)20 (80%)
  Divorced0 (0%)2 (22%)2 (8%)
  Widowed0 (0%)1 (11%)1 (4%)
  Single1 (6%)1 (11%)2 (8%)
 Employment status0.019
  Retired14 (88%)8 (89%)22 (88%)
  Working <40 hours/week2 (12%)1 (11%)3 (12%)
Cardiometabolic risk outcomes
 Weight (kg)79±8.970±5.376±8.90.0241.153
 BMI (kg/m2)26±2.726±2.326±2.50.6920.014
 The waist–hip ratio1±0.10.86±0.060.96±0.09<0.0012.620
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)151±17135±16150±180.0440.924
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)92±1283±1289±130.1260.723
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.0±1.35.6±0.65.5±1.20.088−0.478
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.0±0.41.1±0.31.0±0.40.444−0.988
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/)2.8±1.03.0±0.42.9±0.90.164−1.030
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l)1.6±0.52.0±0.61.7±0.50.0341.751
 Haemoglobin A1c (mmol/)37.9±3.636.6±3.537.4±3.60.3330.386
 Blood glucose (mmol/l)5.9±0.45.7±0.75.8±0.50.1630.499
Physical outcomes
 6 min Walk Test (m)671±65625±61654±660.0660.714
 VO2max (mL/kg/min)35±331±433±40.0791.032
 SPPB score11.6±0.511.7±0.511.6±0.50.838−0.081
Golf outcomes
 Handicap value (WHS)18.7±6.626.9±4.021.69±7.00.004−1.40
  • n (total) = 25, n(men) = 16 (64%), n (women) = 9 (36%).

  • Quantitative variables were expressed as means±SD and expressed in mean (95% CI).

  • Categorical variables were expressed as numbers and percentage values.

  • Bold values indicates a statistically significant difference with a p-value less than 0.05.

  • *To determine gender differences, data were analysed by Mann-Whitney U-test

  • †To determine gender differences, data were analysed by χ2 tests

  • ‡To determine gender difference effect sizes, data were analysed by independent t-test

  • BMI, body mass index; HDL-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SPPB, short physical performance test; WHS, world handicap system.