Table 2

Indirect contact and non-contact injuries’ patterns of Achilles tendon ruptures (n=60)

PatternPlaying phaseInjury mechanismHorizontal velocityVertical velocity
Forward acceleration from standing (n=25, 42%)16 (64%) Offensive25 (100%) Non-contact20 (80%) Zero20 (80%) Zero
9 (36%) Defensive5 (20%) Low3 (12%) Low
0 (0%) Moderate2 (8%) Moderate
0 (0%) High0 (0%) High
Cross-over cutting (n=15, 25%)11 (73%) Offensive14 (93%) Non-contact0 (0%) Zero15 (100%) 0
4 (27%) Defensive1 (7%) Indirect contact0 (0%) Low0 (0%) Low
0 (0%) Moderate0 (0%) Moderate
15 (100%) High0 (0%) High
Vertical jumping (n=11, 18%)3 (27%) Offensive6 (55%) Non-contact5 (45%) Zero0 (0%) Zero
8 (73%) Defensive5 (45%) Indirect contact6 (55%) Low4 (36%) Low
0 (0%) Moderate6 (55%) Moderate
0 (0%) High1 (9%) High
Others (n=9, 15%)3 (33%) Offensive6 (66%) Non-contact3 (33%) Zero5 (55%) Zero
 Landing (n=4)6 (66%) Defensive3 (33%) Indirect contact1 (11%) Low0 (0%) Low
 Sidestep (n=4)2 (22%) Moderate1 (11%) Moderate
 Stretching (n=1)3 (33%) High3 (33%) High