Table 1

Subjects’ characteristics and asthma-related results in cross-country skiers and controls

Cross-country skiersControlsP value
Age, years.16.514.3–21.517.015–22.50.033
Body mass index, kg/m2–21.03.621.85.4<0.001
Female subjects20458.123569.50.002
Engaged in competitive sports other than cross-country skiing22363.58826.0<0.001
 Team sports3616.15461.3<0.001
 High ventilation sports (cycling, running, triathlon, orienteering, aerobic gymnastics)19587.677.9<0.001
 Moderate ventilation sports (combat sports, gymnastics, dancing)001921.6<0.001
 Low ventilation sports (shooting, horseback riding, weightlifting)3415.255.70.022
Physician-diagnosed allergy to pollens or animals11332.28224.50.025
Self-reported allergic rhinitis16045.712236.90.019
Asthma in parents or siblings13739.010029.60.007
Training or heavy exercise/week, hours10.08.0–102.41.0–4.5<0.001
Use of any asthma medication12335.03911.5<0.001
Has been diagnosed with, or been investigated for, asthma18953.86920.4<0.001
Current asthma9125.9319.2<0.001
 Allergic asthma (% of current asthma)3639.61961.30.036
 Non-allergic asthma (% of current asthma)5560.41238.7
Age at first asthma-related symptoms in subjects with asthma, years*13.08.25––11.75<0.001
Age at diagnosis of asthma, years*15.012.0–17.810.03.0–12.0<0.001
Time from onset of asthma-related symptoms to diagnosis of asthma, years*1.01.0–3.01.00–4.00.789
Asthma Control Test score*22.021–2422.019–240.611
  • *In subjects with current asthma.