Table 1

Consensus from the interdisciplinary workshop with experts in sports medicine and sport psychology including four physical perspectives and psychological aspects to integrate

WhatWhyHowWhen
Main focusGoal/PurposeRationalePrinciples(s)Type of exercisesPsychological aspects to integrateWarm-up/drill training/strength
Movement technique LEImprove landing technique during jumping, landing, and cutting
  • Acute injuries to LE are common during cutting and landing with hip-knee-foot not aligned, landing on one leg, and/or with wide cutting technique

  • Specific exercises reduce LE injuries by approx. 40%.38 39

  • Hip-knee-foot alignment

  • Landing on both legs not one leg (back and line players)

  • Soft and controlled landings

  • Narrow cutting technique

Jumping, cutting, landingDecrease stress and increase task focus
Be present and mindful when performing exercises
  • Check-in (self-regulation by acknowledging perceived task focus)

  • Eg, focus on breathing during each exercise, focus on the working muscles, relax other muscles, such as face muscles

  • External focus instructions


Mastery oriented motivational climate
  • Coaches create an open and non-judgmental environment, for example, by providing positive and constructive feedback

  • Apply SDT, that is, create perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness

Warm-up and/or skills training
Movement technique UEIncrease posterior shoulder strength to unload front muscles
  • Overuse shoulder problems are common, and risk factors include reduced internal rotation motion and external rotation weakness

  • Specific exercises reduce shoulder problems by approx. 30%.40–42

  • Train posterior part of shoulder, especially external rotators

  • No “vacation” for shoulder

  • No shooting if shoulder is not ready

  • Weight training 15–17 years

  • 1 Front 2 Back exercises (strength)

Throwing exercises for posterior part of shoulder. Weight training for posterior part of shoulder (older players 15 to 17 years)Before warm-up, during warm-up, skills training, strength
Muscle strengthStrengthen muscles of the core, legs, and shoulder and emphasise correct movement performanceMuscle strength enhances efficiency of movement and athletic performance, and reduces injury risk.43 44
  • Promote and improve fine motor ball skills and muscle strength, mass, coordination, and control

  • Emphasise correct movement performance

Functional exercises during handball practice. Strength exercises for older players (15 to 17 years)Functional tasks integrated in warm-up, and/or in strength training
All-round training for physical fitnessEnhance/improve balance, coordination, functional movement, flexibility, and aerobic capacityMultifaceted training programmes focused on, for example, strength, endurance, balance and agility reduce injury incidence in youth.39 43 45Use of ball, perceived fun, and high activity (ie, guidelines included in the coach education in Sweden)
  • Obstacle course

  • Warm-up dance

Warm-up
  • LE, lower extremity; SDT, self-determination theory; UE, upper extremity.