Table 2

Relative risk of all-cause mortality over 20 years per peak SBP and delta SBP reference category, respectively


UnadjustedModel 1Model 2Model 3
Adjusted for
AgeAge, exercise capacity, SBP at restModel 2 plus risk factors* and beta-blockers
Peak systolic blood pressure category
<10th percentile
(n=1644)
1.20 (1.11–1.31)1.34 (1.24–1.46)1.14 (1.04–1.25)1.07 (0.97–1.18)
10th–90th percentile (n=5094)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
>90th percentile
(n=426)
0.91 (0.78–1.06)1.09 (0.93–1.26)1.13 (0.97–1.32)1.12 (0.96–1.31)
Delta systolic blood pressure category
<10th percentile
(n=1752)
1.24 (1.15–1.35)1.36 (1.25–1.47)1.16 (1.07–1.26)1.11 (1.02–1.21)
10th–90th percentile (n=5209)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
>90th percentile
(n=203)
0.84 (0.67–1.05)1.04 (0.83–1.30)1.13 (0.90–1.41)1.15 (0.92–1.44)
  • Bold font style denotes a statistically significant hazard ratio.

  • *Risk factors include body mass index, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia or a previous diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Model 3 also adjusted for use of beta-blocker medication. Reference values from FRIEND (Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database) published in Sabbahi et al.18

  • SBP, systolic blood pressure.