Table 3

Descriptive data for POE scores, hop performance, patient-reported outcome measures for men and women separately, and differences between men and women

POE scoresMen (n=29)Women (n=24)Mean difference (95% CI)p-value
Total POE score*20.5 (14–29)†26 (21–33)†NA0.012
POE subscale ADL*15.5 (11–24.25)†25 (14.75–32.5)NA0.012
POE subscale sport*25 (12.5–34.5)31 (28–36)†NA0.028
KMFP across tasks*10 (0–20)20 (10–20)‡NA0.106
Femur medial to shank across tasks*42 (25–65)†50 (42–69)‡NA0.053
Femoral valgus*29 (17–48)†54 (33–58)‡NA0.001
Deviation of pelvis in any plane*37.5 (25–50)50 (37.5–50)‡NA0.294
Hop performance
SLHD§ longest jump (cm)121 (36)91 (29)−29.8 (-48.0 to -11.7)0.002
SH§ no of hops (n)45 (16)31 (18)−14.8 (-24.4 to -5.2)0.003
Patient-reported outcome measures
KOOS sport/rec§58 (21.9)59 (24.8)†0.9 (-12.1 to 13.9)0.890
KOOS QoL§48 (19.8)50 (14.7)†1.8 (-8.2 to 11.7)0.723
ACL-QoL subscale Recreational activities and sport participation§38 (16.1)38 (20.3)†0.4 (-9.8 to 13.5)0.944
ACL-QoL subscale life style§48 (18.7)53 (17.5)†4.1 (-6.1 to 14.3)0.426
K-SES subscale present§6.7 (1.5)7.1 (1.9)†0.5 (-0.5 to 1.4)0.345
Global knee function§44 (21.8)35 (18.8)†−9.2 (-20.5 to 2.1)0.115
  • *Median (quartiles) and Mann-Whitney U-test,.

  • †One subject did not complete all tasks/PROMs.

  • ‡Two subjects did not complete all tasks.

  • §Mean (SD) and independent sample t-test.

  • ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ADL, activities of daily living; KMFP, Knee Medial to Foot Position; KOOS, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; K-SES, Knee Self-Efficacy Scale; NA, not applicable; POE, Postural Orientation Error; PROMs, patient-reported outcome measures; QoL, quality of life; SH, side hop; SLHD, single leg hop for distance.