Table 1

Review terminology

Mental healthMental health has been defined as a ‘state of well-being in which every individual realises his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community’.67
Mental health difficulties (MHDs)Throughout this review article, we refer to MHDs, often labelled as common mental disorders, which encompass depression, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, phobias, social anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.68
PrevalenceThe present review article explores prevalence of MHDs among professional jockeys. Many of the studies discussed feature self-report data, thus, the term prevalence relates to a prevalence of symptoms, rather than prevalence of a diagnosed mental health disorder obtained via a clinical interview with a mental health professional. The percentages elicited throughout the review article refer to the number of jockeys who met the threshold indicative of MHDs based on a validated cut-off score for each self-report questionnaire.
Flat jockeysFlat jockeys compete in often short races (1–4 km) with no obstacles. Minimum competitive riding weights for flat jockeys vary between each racing jurisdiction. In Ireland, minimum and maximum riding weights are set at 8st 4 lbs (52.6 kg/116 lbs) and 9st 12 lbs (62.6 kg/138 lbs), respectively.
National hunt jockeysNational hunt jockeys, often referred to as jump jockeys, compete in longer races (3.2–7.2 km) with obstacles known as hurdles or fences. Minimum and maximum riding weights for national hunt jockeys are set at 9st 10 lbs (61.7 kg/136 lbs) and 11st 12 lbs (75.3 kg/166 lbs), respectively.