Table 1

Peak and Integrated EMG values for comparison group and ACLR athletes.

Participant categoryEMG measurement methodSwingStanceP valueESSwingStanceP valueES
Lateral hamstring (HS)Lateral HSMedial HSMedial HS
ComparisoniEMG43.72 (14.27)10.61 (4.02)0.00Embedded Image−3.6250.37 (14.35)11.96 (5.67)0.00Embedded Image−3.84
Peak0.84 (0.15)0.83 (0.17)0.86Embedded Image−0.040.85 (0.17)0.73 (0.20)0.01Embedded Image−0.63
BTB graft injurediEMG46.81 (25.25)9.00 (6.47)0.00Embedded Image−2.3845.27 (16.54)10.03 (4.65)0.00Embedded Image−3.45
Peak0.87 (0.15)0.73 (0.11)0.03Embedded Image−1.050.82 (0.20)0.60 (0.24)0.02Embedded Image−0.97
BTB graft non-injurediEMG51.67 (37.99)9.62 (4.23)0.01Embedded Image−1.9938.05 (16.11)8.04 (3.37)0.00Embedded Image−3.08
Peak0.74 (0.26)0.82 (0.22)0.43Embedded Image0.330.80 (0.28)0.58 (0.25)0.01Embedded Image−0.63
HS graft injurediEMG48.01 (20.28)9.48 (4.11)0.00Embedded Image−3.1644.59 (17.07)8.52 (4.42)0.00Embedded Image−3.35
Peak0.77 (0.14)0.79 (0.22)0.85Embedded Image0.080.81 (0.21)0.56 (0.25)0.01Embedded Image−1.09
HS graft non-injurediEMG46.30 (25.15)8.52 (3.82)0.00Embedded Image−2.6145.27 (16.54)10.03 (4.64)0.00Embedded Image−3.33
Peak0.77 (0.14)0.79 (0.22)0.86Embedded Image0.080.81 (0.16)0.68 (0.15)0.06Embedded Image−0.86
  • Mean (SD) values and pairwise comparisons for both peak EMG and iEMG for both lateral and medial HS in swing and stance phases for each of the cohorts. Data bars are proportionate representing the magnitude (ES) and direction of the difference in HS activation comparing swing to stance phase. Note that stance phase activation is less than swing phase in 17 out of 20 comparisons, and in all 10 comparisons for the medial HS.

  • Bold values indicate statistically significant results.

  • EMG, electromyography; ES, effect size.