Table 1

Descriptive table of the studies included in the scoping review

RefAuthorYear of publicationCountryAim/purposeStudy populationStudy designPA type (measurement)OutcomesKey findings
47Kristina H Karvinen, Kerry S Courneya and Scott North2007CanadaTo evaluate the relationship between exercise and QoL in BC survivors.BC survivors (n=525).Cohort/questionnaires sent to BC survivors.A modified version of the Leisure Score Index from the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire.22.3% were meeting public health exercise recommendation; 16.0% were insufficiently active and 61.7% were completely sedentary.QoL is positively influenced by exercise in BC survivors.
36Chris M Blanchard and Kevin Stein2010CanadaTo understand the associations among BMI, PA, and HRQoL in cancer survivors.Cancer survivors (n=3306).
Blader cancer (n=210).
Cohort/ questionnaires sent to cancer survivors.Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire.Obese cancer survivors were significantly less likely to meet the PA recommendations. This indicates an association between BMI and PA and HRQoL.Understand the relationship between BMI and PA will help identify target groups for PA interventions
48Koebnick C, Michaud D, Moore S C and Park Y2008USATo clarify the association between BMI and PA.Patients with BC (n=471 760).Prospective cohort study.Questionnaire.No direct correlation was found between BC and PA.The protective influence of PA on BC could occur through a mechanism involving reduction of body mass.
32Michael A Liss, Martha White and Loki Natarajan2017USATo understand the associations of BMI, PA and smoking with BC mortality.Patients with BC (n=222 163).Interview survey.National Health Information Survey.Exercise associated with reduced BC mortality.BC mortality was lower in those patients who had the amount of exercise as per the guidelines as compared with no exercise.
38Kristina H Karvinen and Kerry S Courneya2007CanadaTo understand the exercise programmes and counselling preferences of patients with BC.BC survivors (n=397).Survey study.Questionnaire. 81.1% of participants interested in an exercise programme designed for BC survivors.Results indicate that the most common preferences were for exercise counselling in a presential format.
33Elke Rammant et al2018BelgiumTo explore, for patients with BC, before and after cystectomy, the determinants of PA.BC patients candidates for radical cystectomy (n=30).Semistructured interviews.PA motivational factors in patients with BC is multifactorial.

The development of theory-based behaviour change interventions to increase PA in patients with BC, should include multifactorial components.
49Marilyn L Kwan, Lawrence H Kushi and Kim N Danforth2019USAThe goal is to investigate diet and lifestyle factors in recurrence and progression of NMIBC.NMIBC (n=1282).Prospective cohort study.Questionnaire.NANA
41Jensen Laustsen, Jensen, Borre, Petersen2016DenmarkTo investigate the feasibility, the adherence and the efficacy of a short-term physical prehabilitation programme.Patients with BC awaiting radical cystectomy (n=107).RCTStandardised exercise programme consisting of both muscle strength exercises and endurance training.A total of 66% adhered more than 75% of the recommended progressive standardised exercise programme.In patients awaiting RC, a short-term exercise-based prehabilitation intervention is feasible and effective.
42Porserud A, Sherif A and Tollbäck A2014SwedenAssessment of feasibility and effects of an exercise training programme.Patients with BC after cystectomy with ileal conduit.RCTExercise programme included group exercise training twice a week and daily walks.The intervention group increased walking distance and the role physical domain in SF-36 more than the control group.A 12-week group exercise training programme was not feasible for most cystectomy patients. Improvement in functional capacity and the role physical domain in HRQoL.
39Minnella E M, Awasthi, Bousquet-Dion and Ferreira, Austin2019CanadaTo investigate if a preoperative multimodal intervention is feasible and effective in radical cystectomy.Patients with BC following radical cystectomy (n=70).RCTPreoperative conditioning intervention included aerobic and resistance exercise, diet therapy and relaxation techniques.There is significant difference in functional capacity 4 weeks after surgery.After radical cystectomy, multimodal prehabilitation resulted in faster functional recovery.
43Connor Chestnuta, Woodson Smelsera, Travis Duma and Misty Bechtela2019USATo evaluate the feasibility of a diet and exercise programme and its impact in patients with DM2 and NMIBC.NMIBC and pre-diabetes or type II diabetes mellitus.Prospective clinical trial.Participants were given diet and exercise counselling.Average fasting blood glucose demonstrated a 9.65% relative reduction.Incorporating an exercise regimen in patients with diabetes mellitus and NMIBC is feasible.
37Bente Thoft Jensen Jørgen Bjerggaard Jensen, Sussie Laustsen, annemette2014DenmarkTo test if a standardised preoperative and postoperative physical exercise programme and enhanced mobilisation can impact on HRQoL and inpatient satisfaction in RC.Patients with BC after radical cystectomy (n=107).RCTThe intervention group received standard FT and an exercise-based intervention that involved both preoperative and postoperative exercises.There was no difference in the global health score or in the scores of the five functional scales between treatment groups.Preoperative and postoperative physical rehabilitation results on better HRQoL.
  • BC, bladder cancer; BMI, body mass index; CPET, cardiopulmonary exercise testing;Diabetes Mellitus type 2; DM2, Diabetes Mellitus type 2; HRQoL, health-related quality of life; NMIBC, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; PA, physical activity; QoL, quality of life; RC, radical cystectomy; RCT, randomised controlled trial.