Table 2

Association between middle age LTPA status and average annual healthcare costs in later life

Middle age LTPA statusHealthcare cost difference (US$)
(95% CI)
Percent difference
(95% CI)
<1 hour/weekREFREF
1–3 hours/week−1365 (−1913 to −815)−15.0 (−21.0 to −9.0)
4–7 hours/week−1592 (−2130 to −1053)−17.5 (−23.4 to −11.6)
7+ hours/week−2079 (−2613 to −1546)−22.8 (−28.7 to −17.0)
                 P<0.001
  • Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, marital status, race/ethnicity, education attainment, smoking status, BMI at age 18, location of residence and television viewing status.

  • Average annual costs were calculated by LTPA status and compared by χ2 test. All values are statistically significant at p<0.05; Per cent difference calculated using recycled predictions of adjusted reference group. Based on mean of 6.2 years of Medicare claims (range 1–10 years). Model 1 reference group: US$9101/year.

  • REF: Reference group is based on respondents that responded never, rarely, or <1 hour/week when asked how often they participated in moderate and vigorous activities in middle age (43–64 yrs).

  • BMI, body mass index; LTPA, long-term leisure time physical activity.