Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
Currently or recently (past 12 months) engaged in an overhead contact sport (eg, Australian rules football, rugby league or union, lacrosse).
Experienced one or more traumatic anterior shoulder instability injury (ie, subluxation or dislocation) in the past 12 months as determined through clinical evaluation, resulting in a Bankart repair or Latarjet stabilisation procedure being deemed as an appropriate treatment strategy.*
Willing, able and mentally competent to provide informed consent.
Prior history of shoulder instability injury or self-reported perceived symptoms of shoulder instability, as deemed by the Oxford Instability Score questionnaire.†
Prior history of upper limb reconstructive surgery.
Known neurological condition affecting the upper limb.
Presence of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder—as determined by self-reported significant loss (ie, >50%) of shoulder range of motion.‡
Presence of a full rotator cuff tear as determined via MRI.
Contraindications for undergoing MRI (eg, metallic foreign bodies, heart pacemakers).
Foreseeable circumstances that will result in the participant being unavailable for the 12-month follow-up period.
  • *Experimental groups only.

  • †Control group only.

  • ‡Relevant deficits in shoulder range of motion will also be evaluated via standard clinical examination prior to study enrolment.