Table 3

Positions and limbs used for each isometric strength test

DirectionPosition(s)*‘Test’/surgical limbOpposite limb
AbductionNeutral (0° of abduction)X
Horizontal (90° of abduction)XX
FlexionNeutral (0° of flexion)XX
Internal/external rotationHorizontal with elbow flexed (45° of abduction; 0° of external rotation; 90° of elbow flexion)X
Horizontal and rotated with elbow flexed (90° of abduction and external rotation†; 900 of elbow flexion)XX
  • *A straight arm (ie, 0° of elbow flexion) will be used across all tests, unless noted otherwise.

  • †The maximal external rotation angle achievable if less than 900.