Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the CG and HIT-RT groups

P value
Age (years)79.2±4.777.8±3.60.262
Body mass index (kg/m2)*24.5±1.925.0±3.00.515
Body fat rate (DXA) (%)†34.5±6.133.6±4.00.563
LBM (kg/m2)†6.89±0.317.01±0.270.671
MetS-prevalence (n)780.666
Diabetes mellitus type II (n)110.960
Hypertension (n)‡7110.172
Physical activity (index)§4.15±1.534.45±1.320.490
Regular exercise ≥1×week (n)550.931
¶ALEF, LLFDI (index)¶1.73±0.821.87±1.050.646
25(OH)D (nmol/L)**54.0±21.143.8±17.50.126
Energy intake (MJ/day)††9.39±2.428.84±1.710.407
Smokers (n)430.959
  • *Via bio impedance analysis.

  • †Via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, hological QDR 4500a, USA).

  • ‡Mean arterial blood pressure>106.7 RR.

  • §Scale from (1) very low to (7) very high.51

  • ¶‘Advanced lower extremity function’, late life function disability instrument52: (scale from (1) ‘no problem’ to (5) ‘impossible’).

  • **Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured using a Roche Modular E170 Analyzer and an electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA; Roche Diagnostics, Penzberg, Germany).

  • ††As determined by a 4-day dietary record.

  • CG, control group; DXA, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; HIT-RT, high-intensity resistance exercise training; LBM, Lean Body Mass; MetS, metabolic syndrome.