Table 1

Associated factors in male elite athletes with disordered eating (DE)

Associated factors in male elite athletes with disordered eating (DE)
Reference578910111213141516192021323334353637383940414243444546
General risk factors
Level of competition + ø + ø + ø ø ø
BMI + ø + ø
Age ø +
Perfectionism ø ø ø
Career dissatisfaction + +
Ineffectiveness +
Other oriented perfectionism + +
General nutrition knowledge
Interoceptive awareness +
Maturity fears +
Positive perfectionism
Training volume +
Self-esteem +
EDI Bulimia score +
Sport-type specific risk factor
Weight-sensitive sports + + ø + + +* ø* ø* +
Change to heavier weight class +
Earlier start of cutting weight +
Body dissatisfaction
Body dissatisfaction + ø + ø + + + ø +
Drive for Thinness + ø +
Thinner ideal +*
Body esteem attribution +
Comorbidities & health and performance consequences
Depression + + +
Anxio-depressive states + ø
Loss in self-confidence +
Doping behaviour +
Fatigue score >6/10 +
  • Positive relationship (+), negative relationship (−), no relationship found when tested (ø), mixed level of competition (*).

  • Dieting to enhance performance and to improve appearance,8 age at sport specialisation and age at first dieting attempt,8 interpersonal distrust,7 social pressure,38 negative perfectionism,35 social physique anxiety,35 musculoskeletal injuries or concussion47 were only tested one time and showed no significant association. The associated factors from qualitative studies31 48 49 were also not included in the table.