Table 1

Manual muscle testing dynamometer methods for assessing lower-extremity strength

MovementParticipant positionAssessor stabilising handDynamometer placementAssessor instruction to participant
Hip flexionSitting in chairLow backDistal third, anterior part of thighBring your thigh up towards the ceiling
Hip extensionStanding, holding wall or chairLow backDistal third, posterior part of thighBring your leg towards me/push your leg back (keep back straight)
Knee flexionSitting in chair2 inches above kneeDistal third of lower leg, posterior part of shinPull your ankle/lower leg towards your body; bend your knee
Knee extensionSitting in chair2 inches above kneeDistal third of lower leg, anterior part of shinPush your ankle/lower leg towards me; straighten your knee
Ankle plantarflexionLong sitting in chair (feet up on chair)2 inches above ankleOver head of metatarsal bones, palmar sidePush your toes towards the floor; point your toes
Ankle dorsiflexionLong sitting in chair (feet up on chair)2 inches above ankleOver head of metatarsal bones, dorsal sidePull your toes upwards towards the ceiling