Table 1

Main descriptive characteristics of the prospective studies (n=8) identified in the systematic review

Population
Author/year/ref.CountrySample size (n)SexAge at baseline (years)Follow-up (years unless otherwise stated)Measurement of the exposureType of the outcomeCovariates
(maximally adjusted model)
Reference groupMain results
(HR, 95% CI)
Leitzmann et al 200730 USA252 925BothRange: 50–711 265 347 person-yearsQuestionnaire. One questionnaire at baseline (vigorous-intensity activity) and a second one 6 months later.
Moderate intensity: average
time spent each week in activities of at least moderate intensity during the previous year.
Vigorous intensity: frequency of vigorous intensity per week
All-cause mortality
CVD mortality
Cancer mortality
Age, sex, BMI, smoking, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, family history of cancer, menopausal hormone therapy, aspirin use, multivitamin use, intakes of vegetables, fruit, red meat, and alcohol; and moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity exerciseNo physical activityAll-cause mortality: Leisure time
Moderate (>7 h/week): 0.68 (0.63 to 0.74)
Vigorous (≥5 times/week): 0.71 (0.66 to 0.77)
CVD mortality:
Leisuretime
Moderate: 0.65 (0.57 to 0.75)
Vigorous: 0.71 (0.62 to 0.82)
Cancer mortality:
Leisure time
Moderate: 0.83 (0.74 to 0.93)
Vigorous: 0.95 (0.85 to 1.07)
Autenrieth et al 201131 Germany4672BothMean (SD): 49.6 (14.0)17.8 (median)Questionnaire.
Once at baseline.
Time usually spent per week on PA during work, transportation, household and leisure time over the past year. No
adjustments for other types of physical activity in total activity
All-cause mortality
CVD mortality
Cancer mortality
Sex, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes, cancer, self-reported limited physical activity due to health problems and other domains of physical activityNo physical activityAll-cause mortality:
Transportation
Moderate: 1.16 (1.00 to 1.35)
Vigorous: 0.95 (0.80 to 1.14)
Leisure time PA
Moderate: 0.78 (0.60 to 0.95)
Vigorous: 0.48 (0.36 to 0.65)
Total PA
Moderate: 0.91 (0.76 to 1.10)
Vigorous: 0.73 (0.59 to 0.90)
CVD mortality: Transportation
Moderate: 1.23 (0.98 to 1.55)
Vigorous: 1.02 (0.78 to 1.34)
Leisuretime PA
Moderate: 0.97 (0.71 to 1.33)
Vigorous: 0.50 (0.31 to 0.79)
Total PA
Moderate: 0.98 (0.74 to 1.30)
Vigorous: 0.75 (0.55 to 1.03)
Cancer mortality:
Transportation
Moderate: 1.19 (0.91 to 1.56)
Vigorous: 0.89 (0.64 to 1.24)
Leisure time PA
Moderate: 0.56 (0.40 to 0.77)
Vigorous: 0.36 (0.23 to 0.59)
Total PA
Moderate: 0.81 (0.60 to 1.11)
Vigorous: 0.62 (0.43 to 0.88)
Zhao et al 202032 USA88 140BothRange: 40–859 (median)Questionnaire.
Once at baseline.
Frequency and duration of leisure time PA. Vigorous (ex, running, faster cycling, competitive sports); light and moderate (brisk walking, dancing, gardening)
All-cause mortality
CVD mortality
Cancer mortality
Age, sex, race/ethnicity, moderate or vigorous PA, education, marital status, BMI, smoking, alcohol intakeNo physical activity reported in 6451 participants of the reference group (n=57 889 were included in the group: 0 min per week of vigorous)All-cause mortality:
Leisure time
Vigorous (≥600 min/week): 0.58 (0.46 to 0.73)
CVD mortality: Leisuretime
Vigorous (≥600 min/week): 0.66 (0.40 to 1.07)
Cancer mortality:
Leisure time
Vigorous (≥600 min/week): 0.61 (0.42 to 0.89)
Lahti et al 201433 Finland6429BothRange: 40–6012 (mean)Questionnaire.
Once at baseline.
Time usually spent per week on PA during leisure time including transportation within the previous 12 months
All-cause mortalityAge, gender, occupational social class, physical and mental strenuousness of work, smoking and drinking problems, body mass index, physical functioning, mental health, limiting long-standing illness and volume of physical activityLow moderateAll-cause mortality:
Leisure time PA (including transportation)
High moderate: 0.73 (0.49 to 1.1)
Vigorous: 0.55 (0.32 to 0.94)
Shiroma et al 201422 USA7979 (M)
38 671 (F)
BothM: mean (SD) 66.1 (7.7)
F: mean (SD) 54.6 (7.0)
M: 17.3 (mean)
F: 16.4 (mean)
Questionnaire.
Number of self-reported the number of flights of stairs climbed daily and the number of blocks walked daily and frequency and
duration spent doing sports or recreational activities.
Physical activity questionnaires 3 times in men (baseline, 5 years later, 10 years later); in womens at baseline and every 2–3 years
All-cause mortality
CVD mortality
M: Age, MVPA, smoking status, dietary factors, alcohol consumption, BMI, high cholesterol and hypertension
F: Age, MVPA, BMI, high cholesterol, hypertension, clinical trial randomisation, smoking status, dietary factors, alcohol consumption, postmenopausal status, hormone therapy, and parental history of myocardial infarction
≤10% of MVPA performed at vigorous intensityAll-cause mortality:
Leisure time
(>75% MVPA)
Vigorous (M) 0.95 (0.82 to 1.09)
Vigorous (F): 1.23 (1.11 to 1.36)
CVD mortality:
Leisure time
(>75% MVPA)
Vigorous (M): 0.83 (0.63 to 1.10)
Vigorous (F): 1.15 (0.90 to 1.45)
Gebel et al 201523 Australia204 542BothRange: 45–756.52 (mean)Questionnaire.
Once at baseline.
Participants reported sessions (bouts of at least 10 min) and duration of walking and moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity activities in the past week
All-cause mortalityAge, sex, education, marital status, urban/rural residence, smoking status, weight status, physical function, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, and total weighted volume of MVPA0% of MVPA performed at vigorous intensityAll-cause mortality:
Leisure time
(≥30% MVPA)
Vigorous (all sample)
0.87 (0.81 to 0.93)
Vigorous (M) 0.86 (0.79 to 0.94)
Vigorous (F) 0.89 (0.80 to 0.99)
No cardiometabolic diseases
(≥30% MVPA)
Vigorous (all)
0.86 (0.79 to 0.94)
Kikuchi et al 201824 Japan83 454BothM: mean (SD) 61.5 (7.4)
F: mean (SD) 62.0 (7.6)
10.8 (mean)Questionnaire.
Three questionnaires: baseline, after 5 years and after 10 years.
Frequency, intensity and duration of physical activity during leisure time
All-cause mortalityAge, sex, public health centres, smoking, drinking, BMI, diabetes history, hypertension status and MVPAPhysically inactive (<450 MET-min/week)
0% of MVPA performed at vigorous intensity
All-cause mortality:
Leisure time
Vigorous (M) 0.74 (0.62 to 0.89)
Vigorous (F) 0.74 (0.58 to 0.94)
All-cause mortality:
Leisure time
(≥30% MVPA)
Vigorous (M) 1.01 (0.84 to 1.22)
Vigorous (F) 1.04 (0.81 to 1.33)
Rey-Lopez et al 201925 UK64 913BothM: mean (SD) 49.8 (13.6)9.0 (mean)Questionnaire.
Once at baseline.
Frequency, intensity and duration of physical activity during leisure time (sports and exercise); duration, frequency and pace of walking; and domestic physical activity
All-cause mortality
CVD mortality
Cancer mortality
Age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, total weighted volume of MVPA, long-standing illness, BMI and psychological distress0% of MVPA performed at vigorous intensityExcluding the first 24 months of follow-up:
All-cause mortality:
Leisure time plus domesticPA and walking
(≥30% MVPA)
Vigorous (all)
0.85 (0.75 to 0.95)
CVD mortality:
Leisure time plus domestic PA and walking
(≥30% MVPA)
Vigorous (all)
0.88 (0.69 to 1.11)
Cancer mortality:
Leisure time plusdomestic PA and walking
(≥30% MVPA)
Vigorous (all)
0.88 (0.73 to 1.07)
  • BMI, body mass index; MVPA, moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity; PA, physical activity.

  • We contacted by email with Kikuchi et al 24 as they reported a mistake in their publication. In the upper CI of men for (≥30% MVPA), the correct upper CI value is 1.22, instead of the reported value of 0.80.