Table 1

Study designs

Study design
AuthorsCross-sectionalLongitudinalExperimental randomised study
Chaput et al 201136X
Desai et al 201025X
DiFrancisco-Donoghue et al 201926X
Exelmans et al 201527X
Hellström et al 201528X
Scharrer et al 201435X*
Mario et al 201429X
Rudolf et al, 202033X
Smyth et al 200734X
Wallenius et al 200932X
Weaver et al 200930X
Zapata et al 200631X
  • *Scharrer et al was designed like a randomised experimental study but there were no baseline assessments of outcomes. Therefore, it was considered a prospective cohort study.