Table 4

Detailed overview of included studies on study design, study population, measure of sports participation, measure of activity level, study biases and follow-up loss

StudyDesignStudy populationSport participationActivity level (UCLA/LEAS)Study biasesFollow-up loss/non-responders
Chang et al33Retrospective study
  • 339 female, 30 male patients.

  • Mean age: 68.8 years (range 50–83 years)

  • TKA

  • Follow-up: mean 2 years (range 1–3)

YesYes
(UCLA)
  • Potential recall bias

  • No power calculation

Non-responders: 198 out of 567 (35%)
Scott et al44Retrospective study
Prospective data collection
  • 14 female patients, 16 male patients

  • Mean age: 58±5 years (range 46–64)

  • Non-consecutive revision TKA

  • Follow-up: mean 3.8±2.2 years (range 1–9)

NoYes
(UCLA)
  • No power calculation

No follow-up loss (0%)
Scott et al45Retrospective study
Prospective data collection
  • 148 female patients, 141 male patients

  • Mean age 59 years (range 42–65)

  • TKA

  • Follow-up: mean 3.4 years (range 2–5)

NoYes
(UCLA)
  • No power calculation

No follow-up loss (0%)
Ponzio et al36Retrospective study
Prospective data collection
  • 1140 female patients, 876 male patients

  • Mean age: 66.3±9.0 years

  • Unilateral primary TKA

  • Follow-up: 2 years after surgery

NoYes
(LEAS)
  • Potential selection bias: participants with low preoperative LEAS scores excluded;

  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 517 out of 2016 (26%)
Panzram et al46Retrospective study
  • 12 female patients, 15 male patients

  • Mean age: 62.5 years (range 49–76)

  • Cementless medial UKA

  • Mean follow-up: 60±8 months (range 47–69)

YesYes
(UCLA)
  • Potential recall bias

  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 3 out of 27 (11%)
Chatterji et al47Retrospective study
  • 80 female patients, 64 male patients

  • Mean age: 70.8±10.4 years

  • TKA

  • Follow-up: between 1 and 2 years after surgery

YesNo
  • Potential recall bias

  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 34 out of 178 (19%)
Canetti et al48Retrospective study
  • 21 female patients, 7 male patients

  • Mean age: 64.6±9.0 (range 35–79)

  • Lateral UKA

  • Mean follow-up: 37±5 months (range 15–68)

YesYes
(UCLA)
  • Potential recall bias

  • Potential selection bias: no preoperative sports participation as exclusion criteria;

  • No power calculation

No follow-up loss (0%)
Williams et al34Retrospective study
Prospective data collection
  • 155 female, 94 male patients

  • Mean age: 67.5±9.9 years (range 45–93)

  • 232 TKA, 17 UKA

  • Mean follow-up: 12.1 months; range 11–13.

NoYes
(UCLA)
  • No power calculation

Not reported for patients with knee arthroplasty
Naal et al28Retrospective study
  • 38 female, 45 male patients

  • Mean age: 65.5±9.1 (range 47–83)

  • UKA

  • Mean follow-up: 18±5 months (range 12–28)

YesNo
  • Potential recall bias

  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 19 out of 102 (19%)
Walker et al37Retrospective study
  • 26 female, 19 male patients

  • Mean age: 60.1±10.5 years (range 36–81)

  • Lateral UKA

  • Mean follow-up: 35±8 months (range 24–51)

YesYes
(UCLA)
  • Potential recall bias

  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 1 out of 46 (2%)
Fisher et al29Prospective study
  • 34 female patients, 32 male patients

  • Mean age: 64 years (range 49–81)

  • Oxford medial UKA

  • Mean follow-up: 18 months (range 4–46)

YesYes
(UCLA)
  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 9 out of 75 (12%)
Huch et al53Prospective study
  • 216 female patients, 84 male patients

  • Mean age: 66.0±6.4 years

  • TKA

  • Follow-up: 5 years after surgery

YesNo
  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 89 out of 389 (23%)
Pietschmann et al27Retrospective study
  • 74 female patients, 57 male patients

  • Mean age: 65.3 years (range 44–90 years)

  • Medial UKA Oxford III

  • Mean follow-up: 4.2 years (range 1–10)

YesNo
  • Unclear if data collection preoperatively and postoperatively was done at same time or not;

  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 38 out of 169 (22%)
Jahnke et al51Prospective study
  • 63 female patients, 72 male patients

  • Mean age: 63.5 years (range 36–86)

  • Medial Oxford UKA

  • Follow-up: 5 years later

YesYes
(UCLA)
  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 24 out of 159 (15%)
Vielgut et al31Retrospective study
  • 193 female patients, 43 male patients

  • Mean age: 62.7±11.4 years

  • TKA

  • Follow-up: minimum of 10 years post surgery

YesNo
  • Potential recall bias

  • Potential selection bias: participant screening preoperative sports participation;

  • Post-hoc power calculation

Follow-up loss: 8 out of 244 (3%)
Mayr et al30Retrospective study
  • 43 female, 38 male patients from alpine area

  • Mean age of 71.8±5.4 years

  • TKA

  • Mean follow-up: 6.4±0.9 years

YesNo
  • Potential recall bias

Follow-up loss: 2 out of 83 (2%)
Hepperger et al50Prospective study
  • 120 female, 80 male patients from alpine area

  • Mean age: 72.2±7.7 years

  • Primary TKA

  • Follow-up: 24 months post surgery

YesNo
  • Post-hoc power calculation

Follow-up loss: 3 out of 203 (1%)
Walker et al49Retrospective study
  • 47 female patients, 46 male patients

  • Mean age: 55±5 years (range 36–60)

  • Medial UKA

  • Mean follow-up: 4.4±1.6 years (range 2–8)

YesYes
(UCLA)
  • Potential recall bias

  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss: 8 out of 101 (8%)
Ho et al52Retrospective study
  • 48 female patients, 24 male patients

  • Mean age 60.0 years (range 53–64)

  • 33 UKA, 39 TKA

  • Mean follow-up: 45.6 months (range 24–68)

YesYes
(UCLA)
  • Potential recall bias

  • No power calculation

Follow-up loss not specified
  • LEAS, Lower Extremity Activity Scale; TKA, total knee arthroplasty; UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles; UKA, unicondylar knee arthroplasty.