Table 1

Behavioural change wheel (BCW) activities

BCW activityAs it relates to the behaviour of elite athletes
1. Behavioural target specification: Identify the precise goal of the intervention in terms of what behaviour/s need/s to change, to what degree, in what way, and in whom.Effective disruption of plaque on a daily basis, with prescription fluoride toothpaste (PFT).
2. Behavioural diagnosis: Find out what would need to change for the behaviour to change in terms of Capability (physical and psychological), Opportunity (physical and social) and/or motivation (reflective and automatic) in the target population, group or individual.Capability to disrupt plaque effectively and increase fluoride availability twice daily.
Opportunity to use oral hygiene aids and fluoride toothpaste.
Motivation to avoid oral health problems and associated performance impacts.
3. Intervention strategy selection: Use the behavioural diagnosis to decide what ‘intervention functions’ to apply: education, persuasion, incentivisation, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modelling, enablement.Training and education (Capability).
Modelling, incentivisation, (Opportunity).
Persuasion (Motivation).
4. Implementation strategy selection: Choose from among a range of policy options to support long-term implementation: fiscal policy, legislation, regulation, environmental planning, communications, service provision, guidelines development.Service provision: oral health screening.
5. Selection of specific behavioural change techniques: Develop a detailed intervention plan by selecting from among a range of specific behavioural change techniques (elementary components of interventions such as goal-setting, providing rewards, etc).Goal-setting: to brush for 2 min twice daily with PFT.
Planning: to brush before bed and before training in the morning.
6. Drafting the full intervention specification: Create the detailed intervention specification covering all aspects of content and delivery of the intervention structured around the chosen behavioural change techniques (content) and modes of delivery.Capability: verbal presentation, 3 short films and screening.
Opportunity: provide oral health kit.
Motivation: verbal presentation and screening.