Table 4

To show whether studies favoured nKC or KC exercise for overall EMG activation levels

Muscle groups investigated
StudyUTMTLTWTSAPDMDADInfSupUSSCPMLDBBExObcGMaxiGmaxFAd
Nakamura et al52NDNDnKCnKCnKC
Nagai et al59KCNDKCKCND
Uhl et al62KCKCNDKCnKCnKC
De Mey et al53NDNDKC
Kaur et al55KCNDKCKCKCKC
Kibler et al56KCKCNDnKCnKC
Smith et al60NDNDNDKCNDNDNDNDNDNDND
Tsuruike and Ellenbecker61nKCnKCNDnKC
Yamauchi et al63nKCKCKCnKC
Maenhout et al58NDnKCKCKC
Maenhout et al57KCKC
Hardwick et al54KCNDNDND
KC versus nKC overallKCNDKCKCKCnKCNDNDnKCnKCNDNDNDNDKCKCKCKC
  • ”ND“ = no difference in overall KC and nKC exercises.

  • ”–” = not investigated or investigated but not assessed comparatively. KC exercises are written in blue text and nKC exercises are written in red text as a visual aid to interpretation.

  • AD, anterior deltoid; BB, biceps brachii; cGMax, contralateral gluteus maximus; ExOb, external oblique; FAd, femoral adductor; iGMax, ipsilateral gluteus maximus; Inf, infraspinatus; KC, kinetic chain; LD, latissimus dorsi; MD, middle deltoid; MT, middle trapezius; ND, no difference in overall KC and nKC exercises; nKC, non-kinetic chain; PD, posterior deltoid; PM, pectoralis major; SA, serratus anterior; Sup, supraspinatus; USSC, upper subscapularis; UT, upper trapezius; WT, whole trapezius.