Table 2

Summary of results from the quantitative analyses regarding quality of life activities (9 studies with 1158 participants reporting on short-term and long-term effects combined). Number of studies and participants, (pooled) effect sizes and, if applicable, I2 statistics (depicting heterogeneity) are shown. Short-term and long-term effects are presented. Total results and results stratified by intervention component (active referral, e/mHealth and multicomponent interventions with a combination of elements) and patient category (back, knee, hip and upper extremity surgery) are shown.

Short termLong term
NnEffect sizeI2Forest plotNnEffect sizeI2Forest plot
Total79562.62 (1.16 to 4.08)17%Figure 458465.05 (2.64 to 7.46)53%Figure 4
Active referral1632.87 (−3.84 to 9.58)Online supplementary material 9
e/mHealth33111.98 (1.38 to 2.58)0%Online supplementary material 933603.52 (1.62 to 5.41)0%Online supplementary material 9
Combined35825.13 (2.33 to 7.90)0%Online supplementary material 924867.76 (5.02 to 10.51)0%Online supplementary material 9
Back22482.04 (1.44 to 2.64)0%Online supplementary material 1033735.22 (2.18 to 8.26)51%Online supplementary material 10
Hip24635.49 (2.36 to 8.61)0%Online supplementary material 1024734.37 (−1.58 to 10.31)76%Online supplementary material 10
Knee21490.62 (−3.55 to 4.79)0%Online supplementary material 10
Upper extremity1961.48 (−5.60 to 8.56)Online supplementary material 10
  • I2, heterogeneity; n, number of participants; N, number of studies.