Table 1

Summary of results from the quantitative analyses regarding performance of physical activities (eight studies with n=1267 participants reporting on short-term and long-term effects combined). Number of studies and participants, (pooled) effect sizes and, if applicable, I2 statistics (depicting heterogeneity) are shown. Short-term and long-term effects are presented. Total results as well as results stratified by intervention component (active referral, e/mHealth and multicomponent interventions with a combination of elements) and patient category (back, knee, hip and upper extremity surgery) are shown.

Short termLong term
NnEffect sizeI2Forest plotNnEffect sizeI2Forest plot
Total79292.69 (−0.20 o 5.58)76%Figure 349865.77(2.84 to 8.70)54%Figure 3
Active referral1634.33 (0.48 to 8.18)Online supplementary material 7
e/mHealth3311−0.63 (−0.75 to 0.51)0%Online supplementary material 711623.51(−0.67 to 7.69)Online supplementary material 7
Combined35824.26 (0.13 to 8.39)50%Online supplementary material 738246.47(2.94 to 10.00)59%Online supplementary material 7
Back22480.52 (−2.36 to 3.41)76%Online supplementary material 835864.97(1.45 to 8.49)60%Online supplementary material 8
Hip24635.79 (2.52 to 9.07)19%Online supplementary material 812008.40(4.01 to 12.79)Online supplementary material 8
Knee21492.12 (−2.62 to 6.86)0%Online supplementary material 8
Upper extremity1960.97 (−10.90 to 12.85)Online supplementary material 8
  • I2, heterogeneity; N, number of studies; n, number of participants.