Variable | Pretest Mean±SD | Post-test Mean±SD | Within-group change* Mean±SD | Adjusted immediate treatment effect† Mean (95% CI) | P value‡ |

Hip kinematics for the study side (°)§ | |||||

Hip adduction angle¶ | |||||

MoveTrain (n=22) | 23.5±11.4 | 15.6±9.5 | −7.9±12.5 | −7.2 (−12.9 to −1.4) | 0.016 |

Standard (n=20) | 16.9±11.0 | 19.4±11.3 | 2.5±7.1 | ||

Pelvic tilt excursion** | |||||

MoveTrain (n=22) | −10.7±5.1 | −7.5±4.6 | 3.3±5.7 | 3.0 (0.4 to 5.6) | 0.026 |

Standard (n=20) | −8.6±7.2 | −9.5±5.4 | −0.8±4.6 | ||

Trunk lean excursion** | |||||

MoveTrain (n=22) | 3.8±6.6 | 2.8±3.9 | −1.0±6.3 | −1.1 (−3.6 to 1.4) | 0.37 |

Standard (n=20) | 7.5±8.9 | 5.3±5.6 | −2.2±6.3 | ||

Hip muscle strength for the study side†† | |||||

ABDs, torque (Nm) | |||||

MoveTrain (n=22) | 7.3±3.3 | 8.4±3.1 | 1.2±2.1 | 0.3 (−0.9 to 1.5) | 0.65 |

Standard (n=20) | 6.8±3.6 | 7.8±2.9 | 1.0±2.3 | ||

ERs90° torque (Nm) | |||||

MoveTrain (n=22) | 2.3±1.0 | 2.5±0.9 | 0.2±0.8 | −0.2 (−0.6 to 0.3) | 0.44 |

Standard (n=20) | 2.3±1.1 | 2.7±1.1 | 0.4±0.7 | ||

IRs90° torque (Nm) | |||||

MoveTrain (n=22) | 2.5±0.8 | 2.8±0.8 | 0.2±0.7 | −0.1 (−0.6 to 0.5) | 0.73 |

Standard (n=20) | 2.3±0.9 | 2.7±1.2 | 0.4±1.1 | ||

ADDs, torque (Nm) | |||||

MoveTrain (n=21) | 4.4±2.0 | 5.3±2.4 | 0.9±1.3 | 0.2 (−0.6 to 1.1) | 0.60‡‡ |

Standard (n=20) | 4.7±3.1 | 5.2±2.1 | 0.5±1.9 | ||

Flexs, torque (Nm) | |||||

MoveTrain (n=22) | 5.8±2.1 | 7.0±2.6 | 1.3±2.1 | 0.6 (−0.6 to 1.7) | 0.34 |

Standard (n=19) | 5.5±1.8 | 6.3±1.9 | 0.8±1.6 | ||

Exts, torque (Nm) | |||||

MoveTrain (n=22) | 8.8±4.0 | 9.4±4.0 | 0.5±2.7 | −0.5 (−2.1 to 1.0) | 0.51 |

Standard (n=19) | 8.9±4.4 | 9.9±4.4 | 1.0±2.3 |

*Change is calculated by subtracting the pretest value from the post-test value.

†The adjusted treatment effect from least squares mean is calculated by subtracting the MoveTrain minus Standard at post-test, and assesses the between-group difference in post-test values after adjusting for pretest.

‡Unless otherwise indicated, p value by analysis of covariance using a generalised linear model.

§Kinematics represent the mean of up to three trials where the sign of the measurements (ie, negative or positive) are included when computing the average.

¶Hip adduction angle was measures at the lowest depth of the single leg squat. Larger positive values indicate a larger hip adduction angle.

**Values for excursion were calculated from first initiation of descent to the end of descent on the stance leg. Pelvic tilt excursion: larger negative values indicate a larger pelvic drop. Trunk lean: larger positive values indicate trunk lean towards the weightbearing limb.

††Muscle torque (Nm) was normalised by body weight (N) × height (m) × 100 using the mean of up to three trials.

‡‡P value by non-parametric analysis of covariance.

ABDs, abductors with the hip in 0° hip flexion, 0° abduction and 0° rotation; ADDs, adductors with the hip in 0° hip flexion, 0° abduction and 0° rotation; ERs90°, external rotator strength with hip in 90° flexion, 0° abduction and 0° rotation; Exts, extensors with the hip in 0° hip flexion, 0° abduction and 0° rotation; Flexs, flexors with the hip in 0° hip flexion, 0° abduction and 0° rotation; IRs90°, internal rotator strength with hip in 90° flexion, 0° abduction and 0° rotation; MoveTrain, movement pattern training group.