Table 2

Study characteristics and injury outcomes from five original studies of medical-attention injuries in community cricket (n=6)

First author, year (reference)Setting/context and aimsOverall participants (n), age, sexInjury data collection methodsInjury definition,
No of injured (np) and injuries (ni)EM, incidence/prevalenceNature of injuriesBody region/part injuredMechanism of injuriesSeverity of injuriesOther information
Perera, 201922A comprehensive profile of hospital-treated cricket injuries sustained by female cricketers in Victoria, Australia, from 2002/2003 to 2013/2014.n=668 cases overall with 547 ED presentations and 121 HA
All females aged 5 years or more
Top three age groups for HA:
20–24: 19.0%
10–14: 16.5%
30–34: 10.7%
Top three age groups for ED:
10–14: 19.9%
15–19: 15.7%
20–25: 13.3%
Data sourced from Victorian Injury Surveillance Unit which collects ED data under the Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset and HA data under the Victorian Admitted Episode DatasetED presentation or HA.
For HA, SM: <2 days bed stay or ≥2 days bed stay.
ED np=547
HA np=121
Per 1000 participants
Overall=1.9 (95% CI 0.8 to 4.5)
Fractures=57 (47.1%)
Dislocation, sprain and strain=22 (18.2%)
Injury to muscle and tendon=8 (6.6%)
Superficial injury=6 (5.0%)
Other unspecified=28 (23.1%)
Dislocation sprain and strains=199 (36.4%), fractures=92 (17.2%)
Superficial injury=80 (14.6%)
Open wound=46 (8.4%)
Injury to muscle and tendon=38 (6.9%)
Eye injury—excluding foreign body=16 (2.9%)
Intracranial injury=9 (1.6%)
Other unspecified=67 (11.9%)
Head=34 (28.1%)
Shoulder=6 (5%)
Elbow=14 (12%)
Wrist/hand=21 (17.4%)
Abdominal/lower back/spine/pelvis=0
Knee/lower leg=27 (22%)
Ankle/foot=7 (5%)
Unspecified=12 (10%)
Head=152 (27.8%)
Shoulder=22 (4%)
Elbow=33 (6%)
Wrist/hand=158 (29%)
Abdominal/lower back/spine/pelvis=6 (1%)
Knee/lower leg=66 (12%)
Ankle/foot=77 (14%)
Unspecified=6 (1%)
Suppressed=27 (5%)
Hit/struck/crushed by ball or bat=54 (44.6%)
Fall=33 (27.3%)
Overexertion and/or strenuous movements=15 (12.4%)
Other unspecified=15 (12.4%)
Not reported=4 (3.3%)
Hit/struck/crushed by ball or bat=349 (63.8%)
Fall=104, (19.0%)
Other unspecified=94 (17.1%)
Bed stay <2 days=95 (78.5%)
Bed stay ≥2 days= 26 (21.5%)
King, 201817Provide retrospective analysis of moderate to serious injury and serious injury claims and related costs for five sporting codes using national insurance claims (ACC) in New Zealand from 2012 to 2016.n=853 to 324 claims from which
60 803 moderate to serious claims (3072 cricket related), 597 serious claims (15* cricket related)
Age 0–85+ years
M=2864, F=208 for moderate to serious claims
M=12, F=3 for serious claims*
Retrospective analysis of data from ACC for 5 years from 2012 to 2016Any injury which qualified for a moderate to serious injury or serious injury claim.
SM=Any injury which qualified as either a ‘moderate to serious’ or ‘serious’ injury defined by the ACC based on level of benefits and care provided.
np cricket related: moderate to serious injury claims=3072, serious injury claims=15EM=NR
0.4% of all claims cricket related
Moderate to serious claims:
Soft tissue=1980 (64.4%)
Fracture/dislocation=948 (30.9%)
Laceration/wound=59 (1.9%)
Concussion/brain injury=44 (1.4%)
Deafness=15 (0.49%)
Gradual onset=14 (0.46%)
Dental injuries=6 (0.20%)
Hernia=6 (0.20%)
Serious claims:
Concussion/brain injury=9 (60%)
Fracture/dislocation=6 (40%)
Moderate to serious claims:
Head/neck=212 (6.9%)
Upper limb=1086 (35.4%)
Lower limb=1394 (45.4%)
Chest/back/shoulder=72 (2.3%)
Serious claims*:
Head/neck=15 (56%)
Lower limb=12 (44%)
NR3072 moderate to serious claims.
15 serious claims
Cricket ranked fifth for total moderate to serious injury claims but third for mean cost per claim.
Cricket ranked equal third for serious injury claims but fifth for mean costs per claim.
Moderate to serious claims for fracture/dislocations increased significantly over 2012–2016.
Walker, 201019Hospitalisation of cricket players in NZ from 2000 to 2005 inclusive.
Identify the epidemiology of injury resulting in hospitalisation, agents and mechanisms (products and activities) associated with injury and evidence of assistance to those developing activity-specific PPE.
n=498 cases
Age range=2–80 years
0–9: 8%
10–19: 28%
20–29: 23%
30–39: 21%
40–49: 12%
50–59: 4%
60+: 3%
Sex: M>F but no numbers
Retrospective analysis of NZ’s National Minimum Dataset of public and private hospitalsICD-10-AM codes for case hospitalised for at least one night, including bystanders injured as a direct result of cricket activity.
SM=Serious non-fatal cases based on ICISS score of ≤0.941.
np=ni=498EM=1 00 000 people/year and 100 000 participants/year.
Population IIR=2.3
Participant IIR=39
Almost 1% of all cases were cricket related
Fracture: 218 (44%)
Sprain/strain/soft tissue: 76 (15%)
Dislocation: 31 (6%)
Contusion: 27 (5%)
Rupture/tear: 18 (4%)
Concussion: 14 (3%)
Open wound: 12 (2%)
Seizure: 11 (2%)
Other: 90 (18%)
Head and neck: 114 (23%)—28 fractures, 11 open wounds, 10 concussions
Upper limb: 178 (36%)—111 phalanges, 32 lower arm, upper arm and shoulder 33
Lower limb: 156 (31%)—Achilles 44, tibia/fibula 27, ankle 25, knee 21
Trunk and back: 14 (3%)
Not specified: 36 (7%)
Exposure to inanimate mechanical forces: 240 (48%) —of these 144 (60%) were hit by ball and 33 (14%) hit by bat.
Falls: 108 (22%)
Overexertion or repetitive movements: 102 (21%)
Exposure to animate objects (eg, player collisions): 34 (7%)
Unspecified: 3%
20 (4%) cases were classified as serious non-fatal, 11 due to being struck by bat or ball, 6 due to collisions with other players, 2 from falls and 1 from overexertion.For children under 10 years who were injured under exposure to inanimate mechanical forces, 25 (72%) were struck by the bat.
Upadhyay, 200018Emergency presentations to Starship Children’s Hospital Auckland, NZ. Describe the nature of injuries sustained by children playing cricket from 1993 to April 1998.n=60 cases
Age range=9–13 years
Sex NR
Retrospective review of existing dataInjury secondary to playing cricket under ICD code E-8897
np=ni=60EM=NRFracture: 26 (43.3%)
Closed head injury: 8 (13.3%)
Blunt trauma: 8 (13.3%)
Other: 18 (30%)—noted as soft tissue contusions, ligamentous injuries, minor lacerations and abrasions
Head/face and neck: 16 (26.7%)
Thorax/abdomen: 8 (13.3%)
Upper limb: 18 (30%)
Other unspecified: 18 (30%)
Hit by ball: 31 (51.6%)
Hit by bat: 12 (20%)
Fall: 12 (20%)
Collision with player: 3 (5%)
Fall on bat handle: 1 (1.7%)
Fall on stumps: 1 (1.7%)
Two injuries were severe, both blunt abdominal trauma.
19 cases (31.6%) required operative procedures.
Median range of days of stay in hospital: 1–2.5 days.
18 cases did not require admission to hospital (all other).
 Not applicable
Finch, 199820ED presentations of sports injuries in selected parts of Australia for the period 1989–1993. Describe sports injury cases presented to selected hospital EDs and redress the lack of community-based information on sports injury in Australia.n=5 16 221
98 140 attendees to NISU EDs
51 203 <15 years old (children)
46 837 ≥15 years old (adults) not specific to cricket
Gender NR
Data collected from 74 public hospitals and medical centres on standardised collection forms throughout AustraliaNR
3.7% of all children presenting with sports injury and 7.3% of all adults presenting with sports injury related to cricket
Haematoma/bruising: 30.2 %/19.6%
Fracture: 17.8 %/20.7%
Laceration: 17.8%/11.8%
Sprain/strain: 12.4%/26.0%
Inflammation/swelling/pain: 7.5%/10.6%
Superficial abrasion: 2.9%/1.2%
Other: 11.4%/11.5%
Head: 44.2%/16.6%
Upper extremity: 33.9%/32.6%
Lower extremity: 15.5%/22.8%
Trunk: 3.2%/4.2%
Other: 11.4 %/11.5%
Head and facial injuries generally associated with hits with the ball or bat8.2% of ED presentations for children were admitted to hospital.
5.4% of ED presentations for adults were admitted to hospital.
 Not applicable
Forward, 198821Review indoor cricket injuries presenting to ED of Royal Perth Hospital, Australia, over a 6-month period. (Published in 1988—no reference to dates investigated.)n=64 cases
19–34 years
Sex: M=50, F=14
Recording of all indoor cricket injuries presenting in EDNR (all indoor cricket-related injuries)
SM=work time loss
EM=NRFractures: 19–22 (includes three bruised or fractured ribs)
Grade I/II ligament strains: 10
Eye-specific damage: 6
Dislocations: 5
Bruising: 2–5 (includes three bruised or fractured ribs)
Friction burns (infected): 4
Lacerations: 4
Avulsions: 2
Concussion: 1
Other: 7
Head and neck: 14—eye injuries 6 (43%), supraorbital ridge 4 (29%), nasal bone 3 (21%)
Upper limb: 30—proximal phalanx 11 (37%)
Lower limb: 18—ankle 5 (28%), knee 5 (28%)
Thorax: 3—ribs 3 (100%)
Batters most often struck on fingers by ball
Wicket-keepers: 5 of 7 injuries due to being struck in eye by ball
One player was struck by the bat in an argument
No time off work: 19%
<1 week off: 19%
1 week—1 month: 19%
>1 month: 11%
Not known: 32%.
Activity at onset:
Fielding: 72%
Batting: 17%
  • *There is some disparity in the reported figures of the number of serious for cricket-related injury (reported in different tables as n=15 and n=27).

  • ACC, Accident Compensation Corporation; ED, emergency department; EM, exposure measure; F, female; ICD-10-AM, 10th edition of the Australian Modification to the International Classification of Diseases; ICISS, International Classification Injury Severity Score; IIR, Injury Incidence Rate; M, male; NISU, National Injury Surveillance Unit; NR, not reported; NZ, New Zealand; PPE, personal protective equipment; SM, severity measure.