Table 4

GEE model: repeated measures assessment of risk of depressive symptoms* following injury

95% CI
P value
Intercept−2.510.280.080.05 to 0.14<0.001
Diagnosed concussion2.180.628.8782.65 to29.77<0.001†
Subconcussive impact0.130.271.133‡0.67 to 1.920.641
Other injury− to 1.320.451
  • *Depressive symptoms assessed as a binary variable, with Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D20) sum score ≥16, indicating presence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms.

  • †Bold values denote statistical significance at p<0.05; OR derived from Exp(β). OR>1.00 indicates an increase in the risk of depression.

  • ‡Despite a non-significant association, OR (Expβ) denotes an increase in depressive symptoms, per subconcussive impact reported.

  • GEE, generalised estimating equation.