Table 2

Factors significantly associated with pitching performance

Baseball throwing parametersFactors significantly associated with pitching performance
At foot contactSHA
Upper torso forward flexion
Arm-cocking phaseSER
Maximal SERIncreased upper torso rotation angle
Upper torso lateral flexion
Ball releaseLower lead knee flexion angle
Greater forward trunk tilt
Arm-cocking phaseIncreased shoulder proximal force
Arm accelerationIncreased peak elbow proximal force
Arm decelerationIncreased maximal shoulder proximal forces
Increased maximal elbow proximal forces
Timing outcomesIncreased maximal SIR angular velocity
Physical tests and individual
Lateral to medial jump
Medicine ball scoop
Standing long jump
10 m sprint
Grip strength
Range of motionØ
Other individuals parametersPeak elbow varus torque
Direction of the spin axis
Greater separation of hips and shoulders
  • SER, shoulder external rotation; SHA, shoulder horizontal adduction; SIR, shoulder internal rotation.