Table 2

Causes of rhabdomyolysis (according to Zutt et al18)

Acquired
Non-traumatic, non-exertionalAlcohol/drug abuse*
Medication*
Toxic agents
Anaesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents
Infections
Electrolyte disturbances
Endocrine disorders
Inflammatory myopathies
Temperature extremes
Muscle ischaemia
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Non-traumatic, exertionalExtreme physical exertion
Sickle cell crisis
Status epilepticus
Hyperkinetic syndrome
Status asthmaticus
TraumaticMultiple injuries
Crush injury
Electrical injury
Extensive burns
Vascular/orthopaedic surgery
Prolonged immobility
Genetic
Inborn errors ofGlycolysis/glycogenolysis
Lipid metabolism
Krebs cycle
Purin nucleotide cycle
Mitochondrial respiratory chain
Mitochondrial tRNA
Myopathies
Muscular dystrophies
Miyoshi myopathy
Fukutin-related proteinopathy
Malignant hyperthermia due to ryanodine receptor type 1 mutations.
  • *For details see table 3.