Table 4

Disorders, listed as exclusion criteria for patients in WB-EMS trials

Implanted electronic devicesAll WB-EMS trials
Endoprosthesis, any internal metallic materials5 7 8
Cardiac decompensation in the past 3 months2 3
NYHA class IV2 3
Left ventricular ejection fraction <25%3
Left ventricular ejection fraction <20%2
Severe cardiac arrhythmias3
Cardiac arrhythmia Lown IV2
Cardiac arrhythmia5 6
Relevant valve stenosis or regurgitation (degree >mild)2 3
Myocardial infarction in the past 3 weeks2
Unstable angina2
Any history of coronary arterial disease7
Active myocarditis2 3
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy2 3
Pregnancy2 3 8
Renal insufficiency5
Kidney dysfunction (creatinine >1.5 mg/dL)3
Alcohol consumption >80 g/d on 5 days/week4
Any history of cerebrovascular disease7 8
Severe cerebral trauma7
Impairment of a major organ system7
Severe lung disease7
Uncontrolled hypertension7
Psychiatric diseases7
Abdomen/groin hernia6
Extensive dermatologic disorders2 8
Intake of anabolic drugs8
Severe neurological diseases8
Oncological surgery in the last 3 months8
  • NYHA, New York Heart Association; WB-EMS, whole-body electro-myo-stimulation.