Table 1

Self-administered examination (SAE)

Examination manoeuvreDescriptionPositive test
Trochanteric palpation22 23Patient instructed to lie on the side with symptomatic leg facing the ceiling, hips flexed to 60° and knees held together. Patient then instructed to palpate lateral hip for tenderness.
  • Pain with palpation of the anterior, lateral and or posterosuperior facets of the greater trochanter.

Restricted range of motion (ROM)—hip rotationPatient instructed to sit in chair with hip flexed to 90°. Active internal and external rotation performed to end point and held for 5 s.
  • ROM assessed visually.

  • Assessment for presence of concordant pain, pain during motion or pain at end of ROM.

Restricted ROM—supine hip flexionPatient instructed to lie supine with hips flexed. Knees are brought directly in line with the shoulders and then brought outside of the shoulders.
  • Reproduction of concordant hip pain.

Flexion abduction external rotation (FABER)21The lateral malleolus of the symptomatic leg is placed above the patella of the contralateral leg. The pelvis is maintained level and parallel to the bed. The bent knee is allowed to fall towards the bed without moving the pelvis.
  • Restricted visual mobility.

  • Reproduction of concordant hip pain compared with contralateral side.

Bilateral bent knee falloutLying flat on the back with both knees bent and feet flat on the floor. Both knees are gradually allowed to fall to the outside with the feet maintained on the floor.
  • Reproduction of concordant hip pain.

Bilateral resisted hip adduction37Sitting in a chair, subject is instructed to place one fist between the knees. They then apply as much force as possible for up to 5 s.
  • Reproduction of concordant hip pain.

Sitting hip abductionSitting in a chair with knees together, a belt is placed around both knees. The subject attempts to push the knees apart with as much force as possible for up to 5 s.
  • Reproduction of concordant hip pain.

Single-leg stance25Standing next to a wall, the contralateral hand is used for balance. The asymptomatic foot is raised until the thigh is parallel to the floor. This position is held for up to 30 s.
  • Reproduction of concordant hip pain.

Three-way squat
  1. Traditional squat: with feet and knees shoulder width apart, slowly squat into a chair.

  2. Sumo squat: keeping the knees as wide apart as possible, slowly squat into a chair.

  3. Knock knee squat: keeping the knees as close together as possible, slowing squat into a chair.

  • Reproduction of concordant hip pain.

Single-leg squatStanding on one leg while holding a stationary surface for balance, subject slowing squats as far as possible.
  • Reproduction of concordant hip pain.