Table 2

Study characteristics

GendernAge (±SD)BMI (±SD)SubjectsInjury definition
Bond et al 36 Male6321.0(±1.4)24.1NCAA Division IIcollegiate basketballplayersInjuries were determined as those that resulted in zero days of time lost, which meant that theplayer returned to full participation on the same day the injury occurred as minimum.
Bushman et al 37 Male2476SoldiersAll inpatient and outpatient medical encounters were collected as an injury. Overuse injury related to musculoskeletal conditions, such as stress fractures, Achilles tendinitis or knee pain syndromes. Traumatic injuries such as acute sprains and strains, fractures and dislocations.
Butler et al 34 Male108Firefighter traineesMissing three consecutive days of training in the academy due to musculoskeletal pain, excluding burns.
Chorba et al 32 Female3819.2 (±1.2)NCAA Division II collegiate athletesInjury occurred in an organised intercollegiate practice or competition setting. It required medical attention, or the athlete sought advice.
Dossa et al 33 Male2018.2 (±1.3)*25.2Major junior hockey teamInjury occurred during a game or practice which resulted in the player missing at least one game.
Garrison et al 42 Male8817.0-22.0-NCAA Division I collegiate athletesInjury was defined as any musculoskeletal pain complaint, on or off the field of com- com petition. The iInjury was associated with athletic participation, required consultation with a trainer, physical therapist or physician, and resulted in modified training for at least 24 hours.
Hotta et al 39 Male8420.0 (±1.1)19.7RunnersMusculoskeletal injury occurred as a result of participating in a practice or race in track and field and was sufficiently severe to prevent participation for at least 4 weeks.
Kiesel et al 9 46Professional football playersTime loss of 3 weeks.
Knapik et al 31 Male77018.1(±0.7)23.6(±3.2)US Coast Guard cadetsAny physical damage to the body that resulted in a clinic visit and that was suspected to have been caused by physical training.
Kodesh et al 38 Female15819.020.8SoldiersDiagnosis of an injury was provided by the base medical physician.
Mokha et al 41 Male2020.4(±1.3)23.5NCAA Division II collegiate athletesThe injury occurred in a practice, session or competition, required attention or the athlete sought medical care and resulted in modified training for at least 24 hours or required protective splinting or taping for continued sport participation.
O’Connor et al 35 Male87422.4 (±2.7)Marine officer candidatesPhysical damage during training and sought medical care one or more times. It included all injury cases. Overuse injuries were long-term repetitive energy exchange, and serious injuries were any type of injury that was severe enough to remove the subject from the training programme.
Warren et al 40 Male8920.023.9–25.9NCAA Division I collegiate athletesNon-contact mechanism that was reported to the athletic training room and required intervention
  • –, not reported.

  • *Approximately calculated based on the data provided by the author.

  • BMI, body mass index; NCAA, National Collegiate Athletic Association.