Table 3

Results from the included studies

Follow-upType of injuryInjured (n)Non-injured (n)Sensitivity (95% CI)Specificity (95% CI)Area under the ROC curveOR (95% CI)
Bond et al 36 1 seasonA≤14=8*
≥15=48*
≤14=9
≥15=54
0.14
(0.06 to 0.26)
0.85
(0.74 to 0.93)
0.46
(0.35–0.56)
1.00
(0.36 to 2.80)
Bushman et al 37 24 weeksA≤14=308
≥15=612
≤14=283
≥15=1273
0.330.820.60 2.26
(1.87 to 2.73)
B≤14=256
≥15=442
≤14=335
≥15=1443
0.370.810.61 2.49
(2.05 to 3.03)
C≤14=110
≥15=278
≤14=481
≥15=1607
0.280.770.54 1.32
(1.03 to 1.68)
Butler et al 34 16 weeksA≤14=66*
≥15=13*
≤14=11*
≥15=18*
0.830.62 8.31
(3.20 to 21.63)
Chorba et al 32 1 seasonA≤14=11
≥15=8
≤14=5
≥15=14
0.58
(0.34 to 0.80)
0.74
(0.49 to 0.91)
3.85
(0.98 to 15.13)
Dossa et al 33 1 seasonA≤14=5
≥15=5
≤14=3
≥15=7
0.50
(0.19 to 0.81)
0.70
(0.35 to 0.93)
2.33
(0.37 to 14.61)
Garrison et al 42 1 seasonA0.670.73 5.61
(2.73 to 11.51)
Hotta et al 39 24 weeksA≤14=11*
≥15=4*
≤14=32
≥15=37
0.730.460.653.20
(0.90 to 11.00)
Kiesel et al 9 18 weeksA≤14=7
≥15=6
≤14=3
≥15=30
0.54
(0.34 to 0.68)
0.91
(0.83 to 0.96)
11.67
(2.47 to 58.52)
Knapik et al (male)31 8 weeksA≤14=79
≥15=64
≤14=321
≥15=306
0.550.480.531.18
(0.82 to 1.69)
Knapik et al (female)31 8 weeksA≤14=41
≥15=27
≤14=80
≥15=127
0.600.610.59 2.41
(1.38 to 4.22)
Kodesh et al 38 12 weeksA≤14=41*
≥15=56*
≤14=22
≥15=39
0.420.630.511.29
(0.67 to 2.51)
Mokha et al 41 6 monthsA≤14=10
≥15=28
≤14=19
≥15=27
0.260.580.51
(0.20 to 1.29)
O’Connor et al 35 6–10 weeksA≤14=42*
≥15=228*
≤14=51*
≥15=553*
0.450.780.58 2.00
(1.30 to 3.10)
B≤14=12*
≥15=78*
≤14=79*
≥15=703*
0.120.900.521.40
(0.71 to 2.60)
D≤14=11*
≥15 = 48*
≤14=80*
≥15=733*
0.110.930.53 2.00
(1.00 to 4.10)
Warren et al 40 16 weeksA≤14=40*
≥15=34*
≤14=50*
≥15=43*
0.540.460.481.01
(0.53 to 1.91)
  • Values in bold, statistical significant results; –, not reported.

  • *Approximately calculated based on the data provided by the author.

  • A, any; B, overuse; C, traumatic; D, serious; ROC, receiver operating characteristic.