Table 2

The mean scores of the Tri-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) dimensions; novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD), between the control group (controls) and all clinically diagnosed and self-reported concussed cases (all cases) and clinically diagnosed concussed cases only (clinically diagnosed)

TPQ dimensionsControlsAll casesP value*Clinically diagnosedP value**
Junior
N(44)(40)(33)
NS15.3±4.8 (44)15.3±3.9 (37)0.96115.2±3.9 (30)0.879
HA†12.9±5.9 (44)9.7±5.0 (39) 0.009 9.5±4.8 (31) 0.006
HA14.1±2.2 (47)3.0±1.9 (41) 0.024 2.9±1.7 (33) 0.012
HA23.0±2.0 (46)2.1±1.5 (40) 0.017 1.9±1.4 (32) 0.009
HA33.0±2.2 (47)2.3±2.0 (42)0.0712.4±2.1 (34)0.108
HA43.0±2.3 (47)2.5±2.3 (41)0.3212.5±2.3 (33)0.294
RD17.8±3.9 (43)18.2±4.9 (40)0.79918.7±4.9 (33)0.447
Senior
N(56)(87)(76)
NS16.6±5.6 (54)15.7±5.3 (85)0.48116.0±5.2 (73)0.651
HA†8.1±4.9 (56)11.2±6.1 (86) 0.001 11.1±6.0 (74) 0.002
HA12.1±1.7 (57)3.1±2.1 (89) 0.003 3.1±2.1 (76) 0.004
HA22.0±1.9 (58)2.5±1.7 (91)0.1032.4±1.6 (78)0.263
HA31.8±1.7 (59)2.6±2.1 (89) 0.018 2.6±2.1 (77) 0.038
HA42.1±2.1 (58)3.0±2.4 (90) 0.004 3.1±2.3 (77) 0.004
RD19.5±4.0 (55)19.1±4.2 (87)0.65419.5±4.0 (76)0.955
  • The means±SD are presented with total number (N) of participants given in parentheses.

  • *P values for the control group compared to all clinically diagnosed and self-reported concussed cases (all cases). **Clinically diagnosed concussed cases (clinically diagnosed), with significant differences highlighted in bold (p<0.05, age-adjusted).

  • †The HA main dimension is significantly different, thus the HA subscales (HA1–HA4) are displayed.