Table 4

Markers of energy deficiency for subjects with lower and higher exercise dependence.

Lower EXDS score
Higher EXDS score
P value
RMR (kcal/kg FFM/day)26.0±1.925.6±2.026.3±1.70.181
RMRratio 0.86±0.070.85±0.060.87±0.070.209
Low RMRratio (no. of subjects)38 (72%)16 (70%)22 (73%)0.313
Cortisol (mmol/L)508±123455±109549±120 0.005
High cortisol (no. of subjects)3 (6%)0 (0%)3 (10%)0.249
Cortisol highest quartile of range (no. of subjects)20 (38%)5 (22%)15 (50%) 0.048
Total testosterone (nmol/L)21.5±6.319.8±6.622.8±5.80.086
IGF-1 (nmol/L)21.5±6.520.0±6.322.7±6.60.136
T3 (nmol/L)1.9±0.32.0±0.21.9±0.30.288
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.0±0.45.0±0.44.9±0.30.185
Insulin (pmol/L)31.6±11.228.9±11.633.7±10.50.126
Testosterone:cortisol ratio0.04±0.020.05±0.020.04±0.020.584
Cortisol:insulin ratio18.0±7.218.0±7.417.9±7.10.938
  • Normally distributed data are shown as mean and SD, and number (no.) of subjects are shown as number (n) and percentage (%).

  • EXDS, Exercise Dependence Scale; FFM, fat free mass; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor 1; RMR, resting metabolic rate; T3, tri-iodothyronine.