Table 2

Exercise can phase-shift melatonin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and body temperature (BT)

Author, yearFinding
Van Reeth et al 199430 A 3-hour sport stimulus placed around the time of the minimum core BT phase delayed both melatonin and TSH rhythms. The stimulus timing was related to magnitude of phase-shifting effects.
Miyazaki et al 200131 Exercise phase-shifts the melatonin rhythm in a shortened forced sleep–wake routine different from controls.
Edwards et al 200232 Exercise performed at specific times can phase-delay or phase-advance the core body temperature rhythm.
Baehr et al 200328 Exercise at the beginning of habitual sleep time can phase-shift the melatonin rhythm more-so than controls (awake).
Buxton et al 200327 Exercise stimuli at a specific internal time can phase-shift the melatonin rhythm.
Barger et al 200419 Exercise in dim light can phase-delay dim light melatonin onset in constant routine with magnitude related to stimulus timing.
Okamoto et al 201333 Habitual nightly sport can phase-delay hair cell clock gene expression.
Youngstedt et al 201629 90 mins exercise on night 2 of a 3-hour ultra short sleep–wake cycle or 90 mins of light followed by exercise 4.5 hours later can phase-delay the melatonin rhythm as much as a light stimulus alone and additively, respectively.