Table 1

Search string and inclusion/exclusion criteria as of 19 October 2017

Search string(“Chronobiology Discipline”[Mesh] OR “Circadian Clocks”[Mesh] OR “Circadian Rhythm”[Mesh] OR “Sleep Phase Chronotherapy”[Mesh] OR “Biological Clocks”[Mesh] OR “Jet Lag Syndrome”[Mesh] OR chrono* OR circadian OR morningness OR eveningness OR jet-lag OR time zone OR zeitgeber OR synchronizer OR “entraining agent”) AND (“Sports”[Mesh] OR “Sports Medicine”[Mesh] OR “Athletic Performance”[Mesh] OR “Task Performance and Analysis”[Mesh] OR “Resistance Training”[Mesh] OR “High-Intensity Interval Training”[Mesh] OR “Circuit-Based Exercise”[Mesh] OR “Exercise”[Mesh] OR “Plyometric Exercise”[Mesh] OR “Athletes”[Mesh] OR “Exercise Tolerance”[Mesh] OR sport* OR train* OR athletic OR athlete* OR exercise) AND (performance OR health)
Inclusion criteriaOriginal articles that must consider effects of exercise or physical activity as a potential zeitgeber on circadian rhythmicity, performance, or health in humans and be in English.
Exclusion criteriaThe effects of exercise on cognitive states are well documented; thus, studies on mood, subjective exertion, non-sport-associated cognitive ability, and homeostatic drive to sleep were excluded. Furthermore, studies on children and early adolescent teenagers were excluded, as were studies of shift-workers or airline crew. The challenging 24/7 society differentially affects adults, who are the scope of this work, and the impact of shift-work or airline work may allow zeitgeber interactions with exercise that we cannot account for.