Table 3

Impairment measures during the course of the trial

Outcome measureIntervention group
PlaceboOmega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid
Symptomatic GHJ flexion (measured in degrees)
 Baseline141.1 (134.2 to 148.0)140.4 (134.6 to 146.2)
 2 months144.5 (137.9 to 151.1)145.2 (139.1 to 151.3)
 3 months146.6 (142.0 to 151.2)152.8* (148.6 to 157.0)
 6 months150.6 (144.9 to 156.3)151.1 (145.6 to 156.6)
 12 months149.7 (144.9 to 154.5)151.7 (145.8 to 157.6)
Symptomatic GHJ abduction (measured in degrees)
 Baseline134.6 (125.2 to 144.0)131.5 (122.6 to 140.4)
 2 months144.3 (137.4 to 151.2)138.1 (130.3 to 145.9)
 3 months140.4 (133.5 to 147.3)148.4* (144.0 to 152.8)
 6 months149.2 (142.9 to 155.5)148.1 (142.2 to 154.0)
 12 months146.1 (139.7 to 152.5)150.8 (145.3 to 156.3)
Symptomatic GHJ external rotation (measured in cm)
 Baseline41.1 (39.2 to 43.0)39.3 (37.4 to 41.2)
 2 months41.4 (39.4 to 43.3)40.5 (39.0 to 42.1)
 3 months42.0 (39.6 to 44.4)41.9 (39.9 to 43.9)
 6 months42.4 (40.1 to 44.7)40.6 (38.2 to 43.0)
 12 months44.0 (42.0 to 46.0)42.4 (40.5 to 44.3)
Symptomatic GHJ hand behind back (measured in cm)
 Baseline31.0 (27.6 to 34.4)30.8 (26.9 to 34.7)
 2 months28.3 (24.8 to 31.8)28.6 (22.9 to 28.7)
 3 months27.5 (24.0 to 31.0)25.8 (22.6 to 29.0)
 6 months26.2 (23.3 to 29.0)24.6 (22.4 to 26.8)
 12 months24.8 (21.2 to 28.4)23.4 (20.8 to 26.0)
Symptomatic GHJ flexion strength (measured in pounds)
 Baseline21.6 (19.6 to 23.6)21.1 (17.7 to 24.5)
 2 months24.5 (22.1 to 26.9)22.8 (19.4 to 26.2)
 3 months25.2 (22.6 to 27.8)22.1 (18.5 to 25.7)
 6 months27.1 (24.4 to 29.6)26.4 (22.6 to 30.2)
 12 months26.6 (23.6 to 29.6)25.6 (27.2 to 29.0)
Symptomatic GHJ abduction strength (measured in pounds)
 Baseline21.6 (18.6 to 24.6)19.3 (16.6 to 22.0)
 2 months25.7 (22.7 to 28.7)22.4 (19.2 to 25.6)
 3 months25.6 (22.3 to 28.9)22.3 (18.9\ to 25.7)
 6 months26.7 (24.1 to 29.3)24.9 (21.7 to 28.1)
 12 months27.6 (25.0 to 30.2)27.2 (23.7 to 30.7)
Symptomatic full can strength (measured in pounds)
 Baseline9.4 (7.6 to 11.2)8.3 (6.4 to 10.2)
 2 months11.4 (9.4 to 13.4)10.2 (7.8 to 12.6)
 3 months12.2 (10.0 to 14.4)10.8 (8.1 to 13.5)
 6 months12.4 (10.3 to 14.5)11.7 (9.3 to 14.1)
 12 months13.0 (11.2 to 14.8)12.6 (10.2 to 15.0)
Symptomatic empty can strength (measured in pounds)
 Baseline9.1 (7.6 to 10.6)7.5 (5.8 to 9.2)
 2 months11.8 (10.0 to 13.6)10.3 (8.1 to 12.5)
 3 months12.6 (10.7 to 14.5)9.9 (7.6 to 12.2)
 6 months13.1 (11.3 to 14.9)11.5 (9.3 to 13.7)
 12 months14.3 (11.5 to 17.1)12.8 (10.6 to 15.0)
Symptomatic external rotation strength (measured in pounds)
 Baseline15.4 (13.3 to 17.5)12.7 (10.8 to 14.6)
 2 months16.8 (14.8 to 18.8)15.6 (13.2 to 18.0)
 3 months17.8 (15.5 to 20.1)16.2 (13.5 to 18.9)
 6 months18.7 (16.6 to 20.8)16.7 (14.3 to 19.1)
 12 months17.8 (15.9 to 19.7)18.7* (16.3 to 21.1)
Symptomatic internal rotation strength (measured in pounds)
 Baseline19.2 (16.5 to 21.9)16.9 (14.3 to 19.5)
 2 months22.1 (20.1 to 26.1)19.1 (15.9 to 22.3)
 3 months23.8 (20.4 to 27.2)21.4 (17.5 to 25.3)
 6 months24.3 (20.8 to 27.8)20.7 (17.1 to 24.3)
 12 months24.6 (21.5 to 27.7)23.1 (19.4 to 26.8)
Symptomatic elbow flexion strength (measured in pounds)
 Baseline26.7 (21.8 to 31.6)25.2 (20.4 to 30.0)
 2 months31.3 (26.7 to 35.9)29.4 (24.2 to 34.6)
 3 months32.9 (27.6 to 38.2)30.3 (24.1 to 36.5)
 6 months32.6 (27.9 to 37.3)33.0 (27.5 to 38.5)
 12 months33.3 (27.4 to 39.2)31.7 (26.3 to 37.1)
  • Summary measures are means (95% CIs) analysed using independent samples t-test and between-group comparison by univariate analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline value, age, gender and body mass index.

  • *represents a statistically significant difference

  • GHJ, Gleno humeral joint.