Table 1

Summary of ATD data from test series 1

Test IDHelmetImpactImpactHead kinematicsChestUpper neck
TranslationRotationAccelerationForcesMoment
SpeedForceAccelerationVelocityDisplacementVelocityRotation
(m/s)(N)resultantxzxzyyresShearTensionFlexion
(g)(m/s)(m/s)(m)(m)(rad/s)(°)(g)(N)(N)(Nm)
M8BNo5418712.3−6.193.11−0.340.20−13.9−24.810.7−32638715.0
M8AYes5402611.1−4.732.62−0.270.20−12.3−25.710.0−42152216.0
M8CNo6493115.1−7.363.81−0.400.24−17.8−30.512.9−38448417.7
M8DYes6493113.7−6.163.21−0.320.24−15.6−33.112.5−48167619.0
M8FNo7573617.9−8.204.92−0.440.31−20.9−34.815.3−44860219.4
M8EYes7565516.1−6.964.14−0.360.30−16.4−38.014.8−58786819.8
M8GNo8668121.2−9.466.01−0.500.37−25.2−40.118.0−53369622.0
M8HYes8662119.2−7.604.74−0.390.37−18.5−42.517.8−682109422.3
M8KNo9802925.7−10.337.60−0.560.47−29.3−44.521.4−65086823.8
M8JYes*9813025.2−8.946.35−0.480.44−23.4−48.621.0−747119526.9
M8LNo1011 44935.6−11.449.04−0.630.55−36.0−48.231.2−816132234.7
M8MYes*1011 77137.2−10.167.29−0.550.50−29.3−53.732.1−955168739.7
Average (helmet/unhelmeted)0.940.830.830.820.970.821.080.981.241.401.07
SD (helmet/unhelmeted)0.060.040.020.040.030.060.030.030.070.100.06
t2.4959.04018.73312.1102.0317.817−7.1771.657−8.900−9.839−3.322
P (one tail, 0.05)0.027<0.001<0.001<0.0010.049<0.001<0.0010.079<0.001<0.001<0.001
  • ATD, anthropomorphic test device.

  • *Facemask removed to prevent contact with impactor ram.