Table 3

Estimates of strain in the spinal canal (FE study) and CNS (FE study×0.65 spinal cord coupling ratio) for various neck tension loads and flexion angles of rotation. The estimates were applied to the laboratory reconstruction data to estimate the strain in the CNS of these injured players

CaseTensionFlexionSum
ForceAverage strain C1–C5Maximum strain C1–C2RotationAverage strain C1–C5Maximum strain C1–C2Average strain
C1–C5
Maximum strain
C1–C2
(N)Spinal canalCNSSpinal canalCNSSpinal canalCNSSpinal canalCNSCNSCNS
(%)(%)(%)(%)(°)(%)(%)(%)(%)(%)(%)
FE study5002.41.62.11.3357.44.89.86.4
FE study15007.14.69.26.0459.56.112.68.2
FE study250010.56.816.911.05511.67.515.410.0
Case A264611.57.517.311.25110.77.014.39.314.420.5
Case B13425.93.88.75.7469.76.312.98.410.114.1
  • CNS, central nervous system; FE, finite element.