Table 2

Summary of ATD data representing the struck and injured player from the laboratory reconstructions

CaseClosingLocationKinematicsUpper neck kinetics
SpeedTranslational accelerationTranslational ΔvelocityTranslational displacementRotational velocityRotationForcesMoment
(m/s)
x z resultant x z x z y y Shear Tension Flexion
(g) (g) (g) (m/s) (m/s) (m) (m) (rad/s) ( ° ) (N) (N) (Nm)
A12.6Head−38.249.250.9−12.207.89−0.730.55−41.1−51.0−1074264649.3
Chest−36.618.041.85.11.6−0.420.088.210.1
B9.8Head−15.6−15.018.7−6.10−3.40−0.16−0.14−26.5−46.0−799134236.0
Chest−19.29.719.03.80.9−0.170.034.63.0
  • ATD, anthropomorphic test device.