Table 1

Baseline subject demographics and habitual daily nutrient intake*

High-carbohydrateLow-carbohydrateP valuesEffect size
MeanSDMeanSD
Age (years)32.96.034.17.10.6890.18
Height (cm)173.95.3175.76.50.5550.30
Body mass (kg)66.56.868.88.20.4910.31
Body mass index (kg/m2)22.01.922.20.90.730.13
Body fat (%)†9.64.37.82.40.2660.52
Lean mass (kg)57.35.060.97.10.3870.59
Fat mass (g)6.53.65.51.80.2070.35
VO2max (mL/kg/min)64.36.264.73.70.2990.08
VO2max (L/min)4.30.54.50.40.8500.44
Competitive running experience (years)9.06.011.08.00.5830.28
Energy (kcal/day)‡304460428848140.3800.22
Protein (g/day)11739139320.1860.62
Protein (%en)14.93.919.42.40.0011.39
Protein (g/kg)1.70.42.10.60.1920.78
Carbohydrates (g/day)44211682620.0003.87
Carbohydrates (%en)56.510.210.44.90.0005.76
Fat (g/day)9433226660.0002.53
Fat (%en)26.77.569.56.00.0006.30
Saturated fat (g/day)221086220.0003.75
Monounsaturated fat (g/day)321682420.0011.57
Polyunsaturated fat (g/day)17928170.1060.81
Alcohol (%en)1.82.70.71.40.3100.51
Cholesterol (mg/day)2912568443510.0001.80
Fibre (g/day)481523170.0001.56
  • *Values are mean±SD (n=10).

  • †Determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

  • ‡3-day 24-hour food record including 1 weekend day.

  • VO2max, maximal oxygen consumption.