Table 1

Injury and injury event prevention methods reported across >1 guideline

Level of intervention Prevention
PrimaryModifying risk factors associated with injury event occurrenceSecondaryReduces the severity of an injury should an injury event occurTertiaryOptimal treatment and rehabilitation following injury
Staff/teacher factors
  • Appropriately qualified (n=22).

  • Rules in place for appropriate behaviour in sessions (n=2) and supervision levels (n=9).

  • Advanced planning of sessions including warm-up. Cool-down (n=3) and appropriate progression.6

  • Sessions appropriate for participants age, fitness and ability (n=6).

  • Staff adequately trained in first aid (n=24).

  • Sport teachers (n=7) and other school staff (n=4) trained to recognise and manage concussion.

  • Rules for activities and behaviour during sessions are enforced (n=2).

  • Staff aware of how to safely return students to activity after injury (n=5), including concussion (n=12).

  • ‘Return to Learn’ plans for students following concussion (n=11).

System factors
  • Guidelines in place to ensure staff are aware of students’ medical history (n=9).

  • Planning for extreme weather (mostly heat exhaustion) (n=12).

  • Processes established for injury prevention, for example, matching players by weight and height (n=5).

  • Emergency action planning in place (n=9).

  • Schools to have automated emergency defibrillators (n=3).

  • Structures in place to establish return to learning and activity protocols with relevant parties for concussive injuries (n=12).

Child and/or parent factors
  • Preparticipation examinations (n=8).

  • Safe attire during sessions (n=2).

  • Child (n=9) and parent (n=8) education on concussion recognition.

  • Child (n=9) and parent education (n=8) on safe return to activity and learning following concussion.

School physical environment factors
  • Regular inspection of facilities to identify and remove hazards (n=8).

  • Provision and use of fitted, well-conditioned, protective equipment (n=5).

  • Use of protective equipment (n=5).

National factors
  • Injury surveillance (n=2).

  • Legislation and policies regarding rule changes (n=5).

  • An empty cell indicates that no guideline referred to a strategy for this section. Individual rows within the table show related areas for prevention.

  • n, number of guidelines.