Table 1

PAL study characteristics

 Study Design and population PAL Control PA assessment PA outcome Performance assessment Performance main outcome Author, location Design, n, girls, age Deliverer, type, DUR, INT Deliverer, type, DUR, INT Percentage of lesson time in MVPA Type, timings Graham et al,28USA Between-S n=21, girls=48%, age: NR,7–8 years TL, Jump In, active answer mats in maths lesson, DUR and INT: NR TL, classroom maths lesson, DUR and INT: NR No assessment – AP: maths quiz on session content; no pre, post at NR No sig differences in postlesson quiz marks between conditions (p=0.65). Grieco et al,30USA R* by class—Within-S n=97, girls=54.7%,age=8.7±0.4 years, NR TL, Texas I-Can, classroom-based combined PA and learning, DUR: 15 min, INT: MVPA TL, classroom usual lesson, DUR and INT: NR No assessment – CB: ToT; pre, post at 5 min Sig three-way interaction between time × lesson type × BMI category (p<0.05). No change in ToT after PAL. ↓ after CON. Normal weight (d=−0.39), overweight (d=−1.28). Grieco et al,25USA R* by class—Between-S n=320, girls=51.3%,age=9.5±0.9 years, 7 to 12 years (1) RL active spelling relay, DUR: 15 min, INT: MVPA(2) RL, competitive spelling relay, DUR: 15 min, INT: LPA (3) RL, classroom non-competitive spelling. DUR: 15 min, INT: SED(4) RL SED competitive spelling relay, DUR: 15 min, INT: SED GT1M accelerometer (1) 83.8% 12.57 min (2) 67.8% 10.17 min (3) 2.6% 1.40 min (4) 9.3%0.39 min CB: ToT; pre, post at 10 min Sig interaction between time and condition for ToT (p<0.001). (4) sig ↓ in ToT pre to post (d=−0.61); (3) no change, (2) sig ↑ (d=0.43), (1) sig ↑ (d=1.22). Humphrey,29USA Between-S n=20, girls=NR, age:7–9 years TL, active spelling games, DUR and INT: NR TL, language workbook, DUR and INT: NR No assessment – COG: spelling recognition test; no pre, post at NR Sig ↑ in test scores for both conditions, control (p<0.05) and PAL (p<0.01). PAL significantly higher post-test score (p<0.05). Lucht and Heidig (A),24Germany Within-S n=55, girls=NR, age:10.7±0.3 years TL, HOPSCOTCH exer-learning sensor mat for spelling 13 foreign words, DUR: 15 min, INT: NR TL, classroom language spelling lesson 13 words, DUR: 45 min, INT: NR No assessment – AP: visual and written cued recall spelling test; no pre, post at 1 week No sig difference between the total score achieved for the spelling of the 13 words in each condition (p=0.51). Lucht and Heidig (B),24Germany Within-S n=58, girls=NR,age: 9.68±0.3 years, NR TL, HOPSCOTCH exer-learning sensor mat for spelling 10 words. DUR and INT: NR TL, classroom foreign language spelling lesson, 10 words, DUR: 45 min, INT: NR No assessment – AP: visual recognition and visual cued recall; no pre, post at 3 days Recognition: CON remembered more words compared with PAL (p=0.006, ES=0.46). Cued recall task: PAL performance was better compared with CMB (p=0.011, d=0.42). Improvement in both remembering and spelling. Mahar et al,31USA Within-S n=62, girls=NR, age: 9.1±0.9 years(8–11) TL, Energizers Combined movement and learning in the classroom, DUR: 10 min, INT: NR TL, classroom usual instruction, DUR: 20 min, INT: NR Pedometers Reported from wider programme, not specific session CB: ToT; pre, post at 0 min A sig interaction time x condition (p<0.05). PAL: ToT ↑ from pre to post (+8.3%, p<0.017, d=0.60). Control no change. For least on task students: PAL significant ↑ (19.9%, p<0.05, d=2.20). Mullender-Wijnsma et al,26Netherlands Within-S n=81, girls=51%,age=8.2±0.65 years, NR TL classroom basic exercise and learning at desk, DUR: 30 min, INT: MVPA TL, classroom usual instruction, DUR and INT: inactive Heart rate MVPA=60%–90% Max heart rate PAL: 60% 14 out of 23 minCON: not assessed CB: ToT; no pre, post at NR Sig effect of condition on ToT favouring PAL (p<0.05; d=0.41). No sig correlations were found between the % of MVPA during the PAL lesson and TOT postlesson. Norris et al,27UK R* by class—Between-S n=85, girls=42.2%, age=NR9–10 years TL, classroom, active VFT, active at chair. DUR: 30 min, INT: NR TL, classroom seated VFT, DUR: 30 min, INT: SED GT1M Accelerometer PAL: 3.5% 1.07±0.81 min CON: 2.0%0.61±0.80 min COG: immediate facts recall; no pre, post at NR No sig differences in post VFT quiz marks between conditions (p=NR). Valle et al,32USA Within-S n=40, girls=57.5%, age: NR12–13 years TL, classroom walking around tables learning words, DUR and INT: NR TL, classroom learning words from board, DUR: NR, INT: SED No assessment – COG: immediate word recall; no pre, post at 0 min No sig difference between the number of correct word pairs recalled between conditions (p>0.05).
• *Randomisation procedure not reported. Two independant studies were conducted within Lucht and Heidig; these are cited as A and B in this table.

• AP, academic performance; Between-S, between subjects; BMI, body mass index; CB, classroom behaviour; CMB, classroom movement break; COG, cognition; CON, control; DUR, duration; INT, intensity; LPA, light physical activity; MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; n, number; NR, not reported; PA, physical activity; PAL, physically active learning; R, randomised; RL, researcher led; SED, sedentary; sig, significant; TL, teacher led; ToT, time on task; VFT, virtual field trip; Within-S, within subjects; ↑, increase; ↓, decrease.