Table 3

Main characteristics of the CMB studies

Study

Design & population

CMB

Control

PA assessment

PA outcome

Performance assessment

Performance

Main Outcome

Author, location

Design, n, girls, age

Deliverer, type, DUR, target INT

Deliverer, type, DUR, INT

 

Percentage of lesson time in MVPA

Type, timings

 

Hill et al,39

UK

R* by class

Within-S

n=1224,

girls=NR,

age=NR

8–11 years

TL, stretching and aerobic exercise (running and hopping to music) at desk, 10–15 min, INT: MPA

Classroom normal lesson. DUR and INT: NR

No assessment

COG: paced serial addition, size ordering, listening span, digit-span backwards and digit–symbol encoding. No pre, post at 60 min

Overall:+ve sig effect for CMB (p=0.009; hp2=0.006); sig two-way interaction intervention × group (p<0.001; hp2=0.193).

Howie et al,34

USA

R by class

Within-S

n=75,

girls=NR,

age=NR

9–12 years

RL, Brain BITES, aerobic exercise (marching and running in place with arms). (1) 5 min, (2) 10 min and (3) 20 min. INT: MVPA

(4) RL, classroom activity, DUR: 10 min, INT: SED

Modified SOFIT, 10 s observation. Scale 1–5; 1 lying down, 5 very active

(1) 87%

4.35±0.47 min

(2) 43.7%

4.37±0.32 min

(3) 21.5%

4.29±0.33 min

(4) NR

CB: ToT

Pre, post at NR

+ve sig effect on ToT after (2) CMB:10 min (p<0.01, d=0.50). Approaching sig (3) CMB: 20 min (p=0.56, d=0.32) compared with (4) control.

Howie et al,35

USA

R by class

Within-S

n=96,

girls=NR,

age=10.7±0.6 years

9–12 years

RL, Brain BITES, aerobic exercise (marching, jumping and running in place with arms). (1) 5 min, (2) 10 min and (3) 20 min. INT: MVPA

(4) RL, classroom, lesson on exercise science classroom activity, DUR: 10 min, INT: SED

Modified SOFIT, 10 s observation. Scale 1–5; 1 lying down, 5 very active

(1) 80%

4.00±0.43 min

(2) 43.5%

4.35±0.33 min

(3) 21.3%

4.26±0.37 min

(4) 20%

2.01±0.05 min

COG: Trail-making test, digit recall, pre, post at NR

AP: timed maths test, pre, post at NR

COG: no difference CMB vs CON. AP:+ve sig effect of (2) CMB: 10 (+1.07, 95% CI (0.03 to 2.12), p=0.04, d=0.24) and (3) CMB: 20 (+1.2, 95% CI (0.15 to 2.26), p=0.02, d=0.27) on maths scores vs (4) control.

Kubesch et al,37

Germany

R* individual

Within-S

n=36,

girls=42%,

age=NR

13–14 years

TL, virtual Berlin Marathon, jogged on spot with arm movements, DUR: 5 min, INT: NR

Watched students complete virtual Berlin Marathon

No assessment

COG: Flanker, dots task, pre, post at immediate, post at after next lesson

COG: no sig effect of the CMB.

Ma et al40

Canada

Within-S

Grade 2

n=20,

irls=25%,

age=NR

7–8 years

Grade 4

n=27,

girls=58.3%,

age=NR

9–10 years

Leader NR, FUNterval, 20 s VPA, 10 s rest. squats, jumping jacks, scissor kicks, jumping and running on the spot. DUR: 4 min (10 min session), INT: VPA

RL, lecture on healthy eating, physical activity and history of sport, DUR: 10 min, INT: non-active

No assessment

CB: ToffT

No pre, post at NR

Grade 2: sig ↓ in ToffT CMB vs CON; passive (↓9%, p<0.01, d=0.74), verbal (↓3%, p<0.05, d=0.45), motor (↓15%, p<0.01, d=1.076)

Grade 4: sig ↓ in ToffT CMB vs CON; passive (↓4%, p<0.05, d=0.31), motor (↓7%, p<0.01, d=0.48). Greatest effect of CMB for those in lowest quartile for ToffT.

Ma et al38

Canada

R* class

Within-S

n=88,

girls=50%,

age=NR

8–11 years

Leader NR, FUNterval, 20 s VPA, 10 s rest. squats, jumping jacks, scissor kicks, jumping and running on the spot. DUR: 4 min (10 min session), INT: VPA

RL lecture on kinesiology, DUR: 10-min, INT: non-active

No assessment

COG: d2-test: (TN) total characters processed, (E) number of errors, (Eo) number of errors of omission, (Ec) mistakes including relevant symbols, (E%) per cent of TN that were errors. No pre, post at 10 min

COG: sig ↓ for CMB vs CON on d2-test;

↓E (−4, p<0.01, d=0.29), ↓Eo (−3, p=0.01, d=0.18), ↓Ec (−2, p=0.03, d=0.16), ↓E% (−1%, p<0.01, d=0.23), Sig ↑TN control vs CMB (+9, p=0.04, d=0.12).

Schmidt et al,33

Switzerland

R* individual

Between-S

n=92,

girls=45.7%,

Age=NR

11–12 years

Leader NR, DUR: 10 min, INT: NR

(1) High-PA high-COG load. Number connection test. (2) High-PA low-COG load, running at different speeds like a car

Leader NR, DUR: 10 min, INT: NR.

(3) SED with high-COG load, trail-making test.

(4) SED with low-COG load, listened to age appropriate story

Heart rate (note: presented as mean for session DUR)

(1) 154.05±25.73

(2) 144±63±35.40

(3) 102.92±21.07

(4) 87.93±9.81

COG: d2-R test; (FA) number of correct responses minus commission errors, (TN) total number of symbols processed, (E%) per cent of TN that were errors. Pre, post at 0 min

High-COG (1 and 3) performed better than low-COG (2 and 4) for FA (p=0.044, hp2=0.046) but not TN or E% (p>0.05). Attention: no sig effects of physical exertion or interaction of COG exertion and physical exertion were found (p>0.05).

van den Berg et al,36

The Netherlands

R* by class

Within-S

(1) n=66,

girls=47%,

age=11.6±0.7 years, NR

(2) n=71,

girls=44%,

age=11.7±0.8 years,

NR

(3) n=47,

girls=49%,

age=12.1±0.5 years,

NR

ML, DUR: 12 min, INT: MPA, (1) aerobic exercise: marching and running in place. (2) Coordination exercises: dance steps, bilateral exercises. (3) Resistance exercises: squats, shoulder raises

RL seated lesson on exercise and movement, DUR: 12 min, INT: NR

Heart rate MVPA=64%–94% Max HR

(1)

39.5%±27.0%

3.95 min

(2)

14.1%±17.3%

1.41 min

(3)

18.8%±20.9%

1.88 min

COG: LDST, d2-test of attention. Pre, post at 0 min

No sig acute effects of CMB (combined) vs CON on LDST performance (p=0.40) or d2-test (p=0.34). CMB mode did not moderate effects on LDST (p=0.18) or d2-test (p=0.55).

  • *Randomisation procedure not reported.

  • AP, academic performance; Between-S, between subjects; BMI, body mass index; CB, classroom behaviour; CMB, classroom movement break; COG, cognition; CON, control; DUR, duration; INT, intensity; LDST, letter–digit substitution test; LPA, light physical activity; ML, movie led and researcher supported; MPA, moderate physical activity; MVPA, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; n, number; NR, not reported; PA, physical activity; PAL, physically active learning;RL, researcher led; SED, sedentary; sig, significant; SOFIT, System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time; TL, teacher led; ToffT, time off task; ToT, time on task; VPA, vigorous physical activity; Within-S, within subjects; .