Table 2 Relation (OR and 95% CI) between stressors and symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees
DistressAnxiety/depressionSleeping disturbanceEating disordersAlcohol use
Severe injuries
 Univariate1.44 (0.66 to 3.16)1.64 (0.84 to 3.17)1.45 (0.72 to 2.92)1.46 (0.79 to 2.69)1.38 (0.59 to 3.24)
 Multivariate2.07 (0.80 to 5.39)2.63 (1.14 to 6.10)*2.04 (0.86 to 4.83)1.04 (0.14 to 2.90)2.03 (0.71 to 5.82)
Surgeries
 Univariate1.85 (0.36 to 9.52)
 Multivariate1.04 (0.14 to 8.00)
Life events
 Univariate0.68 (0.34 to 1.36)0.82 (0.52 to 1.30)1.01 (0.68 to 1.50)1.06 (0.79 to 1.43)0.95 (0.56 to 1.63)
 Multivariate0.65 (0.33 to 1.30)0.77 (0.48 to 1.22)0.96 (0.64 to 1.43)1.02 (0.75 to 1.39)0.92 (0.54 to 1.57)
Social support
 Univariate1.04 (0.92 to 1.19)1.04 (0.94 to 1.16)1.05 (0.94 to 1.17)1.10 (1.01 to 1.21)*0.96 (0.81 to 1.13)
 Multivariate1.05 (0.91 to 1.20)1.04 (0.93 to 1.17)1.05 (0.94 to 1.18)1.10 (1.00 to 1.21)*0.95 (0.79 to 1.13)
  • *P<0.05.

  • –, zero cases (no calculation applicable).