Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants (N=391)
Age (in years; mean±SD)33±733±634±7
Height (in cm; mean±SD)180±7181±7180±7
Weight (in kg; mean±SD)76±975±976±8
Duration refereeing career (in years; mean±SD)7±57±57±6
Main refereeing function (%)
 Central referee454644
 Assistant referee555356
Educational level (%)
 Nursery/elementary school231
 High school151218
 Vocational/technical school9812
 College, university (equivalent)747770
Employed aside refereeing (%)929590
Working hours per week (mean±SD)36±837±836±8
Symptoms of CMD %
 Sleeping disturbance9.1
 Eating disorders19.2
 Adverse alcohol use16.5
Comorbidity of simultaneous symptoms of CMD %
 Two symptoms7.7
 Three symptoms2.0
 Four symptoms1.0
Severe injuries (%)
 1 or 2181717
 Three or more111
Surgeries (%)
 1 or 2434
 Three or more001
Recent life events (%)
 1 or 2424247
 Three or more898
Social support score (mean±SD)11±410±412±5
  • CMD, common mental disorder.