Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of studies included in the analysis

Study characteristics
StudyNGenderAgeTypeLevelTime of dayCollection time
Alix-Sy et al 49 18m24.6TNATPM90
Balthazar et al 48 8m27.8INATAM0
Bateup et al 33 17f20TNATPM15
Booth et al 50 6m19INATPM15
Carré et al 29 14m18.2TNATPM45
Coelho et al 51 17m23.6IINTPM30
Harris et al 52 8m35.1IREGAM0
Cunniffe et al 30 15m26.2TINTPM90
Díaz et al 53 11m21.5INATPM120
Doan et al 47 8m20.3INATAM45
Edwards et al 34
 Team15fTREGPM95
 Individual13fINATPM10
Elloumi et al 54 20m25.8TINTPM180
Filaire et al 55 12f12.5INATPM5
Filaire et al 31 18m22.2IREGPM5
Haneishi et al 56 10f20.2TNATPM30
Iellamo et al 41
 Male4m26.7INATAM0
 Female4f26.7INATAM0
McKay et al 57 15m22.5INAT20
McLellan et al 58 17m24.2TNATPM30
Moreira et al 59 12m19TNATPM30
Oliveira et al 60 23f24.2TNATPM30
Piacentini et al 61 5m47INATAM0
Robazza et al 62 9m29.1TNATPM0
Salvador et al 63 17m19.4IREGAM40
Sperlich et al 64 17m22INAT2
Yuan et al 65 16mix15.4IREGAM45
  • n, number of participants in the study. Gender: f, female athletes; m, male athletes; mix, mixed gender population. Type: I, individual sport; T, team sport. Level: INT, International; NAT, National; REG, Regional. Time of day: AM=Morning, PM=Afternoon. Collection time: Saliva collection time in minutes before start of the competition. Dashes indicate that data were not available.