Table 2

Background characteristics of the participants by study group

CharacteristicsStudy groups
  Exercise (n=87) Control (n=83) All (n=170)p ValueMissing (n)
 Age: years (mean, SD)40.7 (6.0)41.6 (5.7)41.1 (5.9)0.3610
 Sex: female80.5%78.3%79.4%0.9720
 Civil status: married/cohabiting83.7%80.7%82.4%0.5920
 Education: secondary school graduate79.3%81.9%80.6%0.6720
 Professional degree: polytechnic or higher63.2%65.1%64.1%0.8020
 Smoking: non-smoker80.5%88.0%84.1%0.1820
 Elevated blood pressure (self-report): yes9.9%4.0%7.4%0.3528
 Dizziness (self-report): yes13.6%13.6%13.6%1.0028
 Use of medication (self-report): yes23.5%27.2%25.3%0.5928
Perceived fitness compared with same-age peers
 Higher or much higher14.8%27.8%21.3%0.04023
 Lower or much lower35.8%34.2%35.0%0.74210
Fulfilment of physical activity (PA) guidelines, self-report0.372
 Aerobic type activity*22.6%23.2%22.9%3
 Muscular exercise†15.5%25.6%20.6%3
 Both aerobic and muscular9.5%9.8%9.7%3
 Physically inactive (not meeting either guideline)52.4%41.5%46.9%3
Fulfilment of PA guidelines, accelerometer
 Aerobic type activity*29.4%26.7%28.6%0.70210
Other accelerometer measurements
 Mean daily sitting time during week days, accelerometer8 hour 42 min8 hour 54 min8 hour 48 min0.31110
Proportion of mean daily recording time (minimum 10 hours/day)
 Sedentary behaviour (lying/sitting)61.7%62.4%62%0.59110
 Light intensity physical activity (METs,‡1.5–2.9)12.9%12.6%12.7%0.43110
 Moderate intensity physical activity (METs, 3.0–5.9)8.5%8.1%8.3%0.34110
 Vigorous intensity physical activity (METs, ≥6.0)0.7%0.7%0.7%0.40310
  • Statistical methods: 1indenpendent samples t-test, 2χ2 test, 3Mann-Whitney U test.

  • *Adults should be active several days (≥3 times) a week and accumulate 150 min of moderate or 75 min of vigorous-intensity physical activity (or their combination) of bouts ≥10 min.

  • †Muscle strengthening activity for large muscle groups twice a week (≥20 min/session) is recommended.

  • ‡METs, that is, metabolic equivalents; 1 MET equals oxygen consumption of 3.5 mL/min/kg.