Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
  • Spectators at the European Tour Paul Lawrie Matchplay

  • Aged ≥18 years

  • Able to walk (walking aids permitted)

  • Unstable cardiovascular disease not reported

  • Non-spectators (for example staff, marshals, players, caddies)

  • Spectators that had taken part in the study on previous days

  • Aged under 18 years

  • Inability to walk

  • Reported unstable cardiovascular disease (critical aortic stenosis, unstable angina, myocardial infarction within 6 weeks—a medical doctor was part of the research team and could provide individual case advice)